Henry: Cancer Management in Small Animal Practice

Chapter 26: Tumors of the Endocrine System


Section A: Adrenal and Pituitary Tumors in Dogs and Cats

  1. Labelle P, DeCock HE: Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals, Vet Pathol 42:52, 2005. Medline abstracts
  2. Anderson CR, Birchard SJ, Powers BE, et al: Surgical treatment of adrenocortical tumors: 21 cases (1990-1996), J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 37:93, 2001. Medline abstracts
  3. Greco DS, Peterson ME, Davidson AP, et al: Concurrent pituitary and adrenal tumors in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism: 17 cases (1978-1995), J Am Vet Med Assoc 214:1349, 1999. Medline abstracts
  4. Hoerauf A, Reusch C: Ultrasonographic characteristics of both adrenal glands in 15 dogs with functional adrenocortical tumors, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 35:193, 1999. Medline abstracts
  5. Reusch CE, Feldman EC: Canine hyperadrenocorticism due to adrenocortical neoplasia. Pretreatment evaluation of 41 dogs, J Vet Intern Med 5:3, 1991. Medline abstracts
  6. van Sluijs JF, Sjollema BE, Voorhout G, et al: Results of adrenalectomy in 36 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism caused by adreno-cortical tumour, Vet Q 17:113, 1995. Medline abstracts
  7. Labelle P, Kyles AE, Farver TB, DeCock HE: Indicators of malignancy of canine adrenocortical tumors: histopathology and proliferation index, Vet Pathol 41:490, 2004. Medline abstracts
  8. Scavelli TD, Peterson ME, Matthiesen DT: Results of surgical treatment for hyperadrenocorticism caused by adrenocortical neoplasia in the dog: 25 cases (1980-1984), J Am Vet Med Assoc 189:1360, 1986. Medline abstracts
  9. Kyles AE, Feldman EC, DeCock HE, et al: Surgical management of adrenal gland tumors with and without associated tumor thrombi in dogs: 40 cases (1994-2001), J Am Vet Med Assoc 223:654, 2003. Medline abstracts
  10. Kintzer PP, Peterson ME: Mitotane treatment of 32 dogs with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical neoplasms, J Am Vet Med Assoc 205:54, 1994. Medline abstracts
  11. Eastwood JM, Elwood CM, Hurley KJ: Trilostane treatment of a dog with functional adrenocortical neoplasia, J Small Anim Pract 44:126, 2003. Medline abstracts
  12. Feldman EC, Nelson RW, Feldman MS, et al: Comparison of mitotane treatment for adrenal tumor versus pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 200:1642, 1992. Medline abstracts
  13. Feldman EC, Bruyette DS, Nelson RW, Farver TB: Plasma cortisol response to ketoconazole administration in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, J Am Vet Med Assoc 197:71, 1990. Medline abstracts
  14. Barthez PY, Marks SL, Woo J, et al: Pheochromocytoma in dogs: 61 cases (1984-1995), J Vet Intern Med 11:272, 1997. Medline abstracts
  15. Gilson SD, Withrow SJ, Wheeler SL, Twedt DC: Pheochromocytoma in 50 dogs, J Vet Intern Med 8:228, 1994. Medline abstracts
  16. Bouayad H, Feeney DA, Caywood DD, Hayden DW: Pheochromocytoma in dogs: 13 cases (1980-1985), J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:1610, 1987. Medline abstracts
  17. Santamarina G, Espino L, Vila M, et al: Aortic thromboembolism and retroperitoneal hemorrhage associated with a pheochromocytoma in a dog, J Vet Intern Med 17:917, 2003. Medline abstracts
  18. Whittemore JC, Preston CA, Kyles AE, et al: Nontraumatic rupture of an adrenal gland tumor causing intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal hemorrhage in four dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 219:329, 2001. Medline abstracts
  19. Rosenstein DS: Diagnostic imaging in canine pheochromocytoma, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 41:499, 2000. Medline abstracts
  20. Gilson SD, Withrow SJ, Orton EC: Surgical treatment of pheochromocytoma: technique, complications, and results in six dogs, Vet Surg 23:195, 1994. Medline abstracts
  21. Plumb DC: Veterinary drug handbook, ed 3. Ames, 1999, Iowa State University Press.
  22. Kocak S, Aydintug S, Canakci N: Alpha blockade in preoperative preparation of patients with pheochromocytomas, Int Surg 87:191, 2002. Medline abstracts
  23. Chew SL: Recent developments in the therapy of phaeochromocytoma, Expert Opin Investig Drugs 13:1579, 2004. Medline abstracts
  24. Kitaa JM, Mitema ES: Effects of antiarrhythmic drugs (verapamil, propranolol and lignocaine) on the electrocardiogram and haematology in adrenaline-induced arrhythmias in dogs anaesthetized with halothane, Br Vet J 150:365, 1994. Medline abstracts
  25. Sheaves R, Chew SL, Grossman AB: The dangers of unopposed beta-adrenergic blockade in phaeochromocytoma, Postgrad Med J 71:58, 1995. Medline abstracts
  26. Ash RA, Harvey AM, Tasker S: Primary hyperaldosteronism in the cat: a series of 13 cases, J Feline Med Surg 7:173, 2005. Medline abstracts
  27. Patnaik AK, Erlandson RA, Lieberman PH, et al: Extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma (paraganglioma) in a cat, J Am Vet Med Assoc 197:104, 1990. Medline abstracts
  28. Chun R, Jakovljevic S, Morrison WB, et al: Apocrine gland adenocarcinoma and pheochromocytoma in a cat, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 33:33, 1997. Medline abstracts
  29. Nelson RW, Feldman EC, Smith MC: Hyperadrenocorticism in cats: seven cases (1978-1987), J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:245, 1988. Medline abstracts
  30. Moore LE, Biller DS, Smith TA: Use of abdominal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism in a cat, J Am Vet Med Assoc 217:213, 2000. Medline abstracts
  31. Rijnberk A, Voorhout G, Kooistra HS, et al: Hyperaldosteronism in a cat with metastasized adrenocortical tumour, Vet Q 23:38, 2001. Medline abstracts
  32. Duesberg CA, Nelson RW, Feldman EC, et al: Adrenalectomy for treatment of hyperadrenocorticism in cats: 10 cases (1988-1992), J Am Vet Med Assoc 207:1066, 1995. Medline abstracts
  33. Boag AK, Neiger R, Church DB: Trilostane treatment of bilateral adrenal enlargement and excessive sex steroid hormone production in a cat, J Small Anim Pract 45:263, 2004. Medline abstracts
  34. Skelly BJ, Petrus D, Nicholls PK: Use of trilostane for the treatment of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in a cat, J Small Anim Pract 44:269, 2003. Medline abstracts
  35. Neiger R, Witt AL, Noble A, German AJ: Trilostane therapy for treatment of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in 5 cats, J Vet Intern Med 18:160, 2004. Medline abstracts
  36. Flood SM, Randolph JF, Gelzer AR, Refsal K: Primary hyperaldosteronism in two cats, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 35:411, 1999. Medline abstracts
  37. MacKay AD, Holt PE, Sparkes AH: Successful surgical treatment of a cat with primary aldosteronism, J Feline Med Surg 1:117, 1999. Medline abstracts
  38. Boujon CE, Ritz U, Rossi GL, Bestetti GE: A clinico-pathological study of canine Cushing’s disease caused by a pituitary carcinoma, J Comp Pathol 105:353, 1991. Medline abstracts
  39. Fracassi F, Gandini G, Diana A, et al: Acromegaly due to a somatroph adenoma in a dog, Domest Anim Endocrinol 32:43, 2006. Medline abstracts
  40. van Keulen LJ, Wesdorp JL, Kooistra HS: Diabetes mellitus in a dog with a growth hormone-producing acidophilic adenoma of the adenohypophysis, Vet Pathol 33:451, 1996. Medline abstracts
  41. Duesberg CA, Feldman EC, Nelson RW, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of pituitary macrotumors in dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 206:657, 1995. Medline abstracts
  42. Nelson RW, Ihle SL, Feldman EC: Pituitary macroadenomas and macroadenocarcinomas in dogs treated with mitotane for pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism: 13 cases (1981-1986), J Am Vet Med Assoc 194:1612, 1989. Medline abstracts
  43. Feldman EC, Nelson RW: Canine and feline endocrinology and reproduction, ed 3. St Louis, 2004, Elsevier.
  44. Voorhout G, Stolp R, Lubberink AA, van Waes PF: Computed tomography in the diagnosis of canine hyperadrenocorticism not suppressible by dexamethasone, J Am Vet Med Assoc 192:641, 1988. Medline abstracts
  45. Kipperman BS, Feldman EC, Dybdal NO, Nelson RW: Pituitary tumor size, neurologic signs, and relation to endocrine test results in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism: 43 cases (1980-1990), J Am Vet Med Assoc 201:762, 1992. Medline abstracts
  46. van der Vlugt-Meijer RH, Meij BP, van den Ingh TS, et al: Dynamic computed tomography of the pituitary gland in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, J Vet Intern Med 17:773, 2003. Medline abstracts
  47. Granger N, de Fornel P, Devauchelle P, et al: Plasma pro-opiomelanocortin, pro-adrenocorticotropin hormone, and pituitary adenoma size in dogs with Cushing’s disease, J Vet Intern Med 19:23, 2005. Medline abstracts
  48. DeClue AE, Cohn LA, Kerl ME: Medical therapies for pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism, Vet Med 99:519, 2004.
  49. Braddock JA, Church DB, Robertson ID, Watson AD: Inefficacy of selegiline in treatment of canine pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, Aust Vet J 82:272, 2004. Medline abstracts
  50. Hanson JM, van ‘t Hoofd MM, Voorhout G, et al: Efficacy of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in treatment of dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, J Vet Intern Med 19:687, 2005. Medline abstracts
  51. Meij BP, Voorhout G, van den Ingh TS, et al: Results of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in 52 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, Vet Surg 27:246, 1998. Medline abstracts
  52. Goossens MM, Feldman EC, Theon AP, Koblik PD: Efficacy of cobalt 60 radiotherapy in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, J Am Vet Med Assoc 212:374, 1998. Medline abstracts
  53. Kaser-Hotz B, Rohrer CR, Stankeova S, et al: Radiotherapy of pituitary tumours in five cats, J Small Anim Pract 43:303, 2002. Medline abstracts
  54. Meij BP, Voorhout G, van den Ingh TS, Rijnberk A: Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy for treatment of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in 7 cats, Vet Surg 30:72, 2001. Medline abstracts
  55. Davidson ME, Nasisse MP, Breitschwerdt EB, et al: Acute blindness associated with intracranial tumors in dogs and cats: eight cases (1984-1989), J Am Vet Med Assoc 199:755, 1991. Medline abstracts
  56. Furuzawa Y, Une Y, Nomura Y: Pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism in a cat, J Vet Med Sci 54:1201, 1992. Medline abstracts
  57. Elliott DA, Feldman EC, Koblik PD, et al: Prevalence of pituitary tumors among diabetic cats with insulin resistance, J Am Vet Med Assoc 216:1765, 2000. Medline abstracts
  58. Neiger R, Witt AL, Noble A, German AJ: Trilostane therapy for treatment of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in 5 cats, J Vet Intern Med 18:160, 2004. Medline abstracts
  59. Peterson ME, Taylor RS, Greco DS, et al: Acromegaly in 14 cats, J Vet Intern Med 4:192, 1990. Medline abstracts
  60. Norman EJ, Mooney CT: Diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus in five cats with somatotrophic abnormalities, J Feline Med Surg 2:183, 2000. Medline abstracts
  61. Goossens MM, Feldman EC, Nelson RW, et al: Cobalt 60 irradiation of pituitary gland tumors in three cats with acromegaly, J Am Vet Med Assoc 213:374, 1998. Medline abstracts
  62. Meij B, van der Vlugt-Meijer RH, van den Ingh TS, Rijnberk A: Somatotroph and corticotroph pituitary adenoma (double adenoma) in a cat with diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, J Comp Pathol 130:209, 2004. Medline abstracts
  63. Littler RM, Polton GA, Brearley MJ: Resolution of diabetes mellitus but not acromegaly in a cat with a pituitary macroadenoma treated with hypofractionated radiation, J Small Anim Pract 47:392, 2006. Medline abstracts
  64. Behrend EN, Weigand CM, Whitley EM, et al: Corticosterone- and aldosterone-secreting adrenocortical tumor in a dog, J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:1662, 2005. Medline abstracts
  65. Hill KE, Scott-Moncrieff JC, Koshko MA, et al: Secretion of sex hormones in dogs with adrenal dysfunction, J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:556, 2005. Medline abstracts
  66. Javadi S, Kooistra HS, Mol JA, et al: Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, Vet Rec 153:521, 2003. Medline abstracts
  67. Rijnberk A, Kooistra HS, van Vonderen IK, et al: Aldosteronoma in a dog with polyuria as the leading symptom, Domest Anim Endocrinol 20:227, 2001. Medline abstracts
  68. Head LL, Daniel GB: Scintigraphic diagnosis--an unusual presentation of metastatic pheochromocytoma in a dog, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 45:574, 2004. Medline abstracts
  69. DeClue AE, Breshears LA, Pardo ID, et al: Hyperaldosteronism and hyperprogesteronism in a cat with an adrenal cortical carcinoma, J Vet Intern Med 19:355, 2005. Medline abstracts
  70. Boord M, Griffin C: Progesterone secreting adrenal mass in a cat with clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism, J Am Vet Med Assoc 214:666, 1999. Medline abstracts
  71. Rossmeisl JH Jr, Scott-Moncrieff JC, Siems J, et al: Hyperadrenocorticism and hyperprogesteronemia in a cat with an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 36:512, 2000. Medline abstracts
  72. Reimer SB, Pelosi A, Frank JD, et al: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I in a cat, J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:101, 2005. Medline abstracts
  73. van Liew CH, Greco DS, Salman MD: Comparison of results of adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation and low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests with necropsy findings in dogs: 81 cases (1985-1995), J Am Vet Med Assoc 211:322, 1997. Medline abstracts
  74. Norman E, Thompson H, Mooney C: Dynamic adrenal function testing in eight dogs with hyperadrenocorticism associated with adrenocortical neoplasia, Vet Rec 144:551, 1999. Medline abstracts
  75. Feldman EC, Nelson RW, Feldman MS: Use of low- and high-dose dexamethasone tests for distinguishing pituitary-dependent from adrenal tumor hyperadrenocorticism in dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 209:772, 1996. Medline abstracts

Section B: Thyroid Tumors

  1. Capen CC: Tumors of the endocrine gland. In Meuten DJ (ed): Tumors in domestic animals. Ames, IA, 2002, Iowa State Press, pp 638-650.
  2. Bertazzolo W, Giudice C, Dell’Orco M, et al: Paratracheal cervical mass in a dog, Vet Clin Pathol 32:209, 2003. Medline abstracts
  3. Grubor B, Haynes JS: Thyroid carcinosarcoma in a dog, Vet Pathol 42:84, 2005. Medline abstracts
  4. Benjamin SA, Saunders WJ, Lee AC, et al: Non-neoplastic and neoplastic thyroid disease in beagles irradiated during prenatal and postnatal development, Radiat Res 147:422, 1997. Medline abstracts
  5. Benjamin SA, Saunders WJ, Angleton GM, et al: Radiation carcinogenesis in dogs irradiated during prenatal and postnatal development, J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 32(Suppl 2):86, 1991. Medline abstracts
  6. Lee JJ, Larsson C, Lui WO, et al: A dog pedigree with familial medullary thyroid cancer, Int J Oncol 29:1173, 2006. Medline abstracts
  7. Olczak J, Jones BR, Pfeiffer DU, et al: Multivariate analysis of risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism in New Zealand, N Z Vet J 53:53, 2005. Medline abstracts
  8. Edinboro CH, Scott-Moncrieff JC, Janovitz E, et al: Epidemiologic study of relationships between consumption of commercial canned food and risk of hyperthyroidism in cats, J Am Vet Med Assoc 224:879, 2004. Medline abstracts
  9. Watson SG, Radford AD, Kipar A, et al: Somatic mutations of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor gene in feline hyperthyroidism: parallels with human hyperthyroidism, J Endocrinol 186:523, 2005. Medline abstracts
  10. Reimann N, Nolte I, Bonk U, et al: Trisomy 18 in a canine thyroid adenoma, Cancer Genet Cytogenet 90:154, 1996. Medline abstracts
  11. Leav I, Schiller AL, Rijnberk A, et al: Adenomas and carcinomas of the canine and feline thyroid, Am J Pathol 83:61, 1976. Medline abstracts
  12. Hayes HM, Jr., Fraumeni JF, Jr: Canine thyroid neoplasms: epidemiologic features, J Natl Cancer Inst 55:931, 1975. Medline abstracts
  13. Constantino-Casas P, Rodriguez-Martinez HA, Gutierrez Diaz-Ceballos ME: A case report and review: the gross, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a carcinoma of ectopic thyroid in a dog, Br Vet J 152:669, 1996. Medline abstracts
  14. Lantz GC, Salisbury SK: Surgical excision of ectopic thyroid carcinoma involving the base of the tongue in dogs: three cases (1980-1987), J Am Vet Med Assoc 195:1606, 1989. Medline abstracts
  15. Stassen QE, Voorhout G, Teske E, et al: Hyperthyroidism due to an intrathoracic tumour in a dog with test results suggesting hyperadrenocorticism, J Small Anim Pract 48:283, 2007. Medline abstracts
  16. Bezzola P: Thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism in a dog, Can Vet J 43:125, 2002. Medline abstracts
  17. Slensky KA, Volk SW, Schwarz T, et al: Acute severe hemorrhage secondary to arterial invasion in a dog with thyroid carcinoma, J Am Vet Med Assoc 223:649, 2003. Medline abstracts
  18. Marks SL, Koblik PD, Hornof WJ, et al: 99mTc-pertechnetate imaging of thyroid tumors in dogs: 29 cases (1980-1992), J Am Vet Med Assoc 204:756, 1994. Medline abstracts
  19. Kintzer PP, Peterson ME: Thyroid scintigraphy in small animals, Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 6:131, 1991. Medline abstracts
  20. Wisner ER, Nyland TG: Ultrasonography of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 28:973, 1998. Medline abstracts
  21. Carver JR, Kapatkin A, Patnaik AK. A comparison of medullary thyroid carcinoma and thyroid adenocarcinoma in dogs: a retrospective study of 38 cases, Vet Surg 24:315, 1995. Medline abstracts
  22. Harmelin A, Nyska A, Aroch I, et al: Canine medullary thyroid carcinoma with unusual distant metastases, J Vet Diagn Invest 5:284, 1993. Medline abstracts
  23. Tamura S, Tamura Y, Suzuoka N, et al: Multiple metastases of thyroid cancer in the cranium and pituitary gland in two dogs, J Small Anim Pract 48:237, 2007. Medline abstracts
  24. Brearley MJ, Hayes AM, Murphy S: Hypofractionated radiation therapy for invasive thyroid carcinoma in dogs: a retrospective analysis of survival, J Small Anim Pract 40:206, 1999. Medline abstracts
  25. Brearley MJ: Radiation therapy for unresectable thyroid carcinomas, J Am Vet Med Assoc 217:466, 2000. Medline abstracts
  26. Klein MK, Powers BE, Withrow SJ, et al: Treatment of thyroid carcinoma in dogs by surgical resection alone: 20 cases (1981-1989), J Am Vet Med Assoc 206:1007, 1995. Medline abstracts
  27. Pack L, Roberts RE, Dawson SD, et al: Definitive radiation therapy for infiltrative thyroid carcinoma in dogs, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 42:471, 2001. Medline abstracts
  28. Theon AP, Marks SL, Feldman ES, et al: Prognostic factors and patterns of treatment failure in dogs with unresectable differentiated thyroid carcinomas treated with megavoltage irradiation, J Am Vet Med Assoc 216:1775, 2000. Medline abstracts
  29. Turrel JM, McEntee MC, Burke BP, et al: Sodium iodide I 131 treatment of dogs with nonresectable thyroid tumors: 39 cases (1990-2003), J Am Vet Med Assoc 229:542, 2006. Medline abstracts
  30. Worth AJ, Zuber RM, Hocking M: Radioiodide (131I) therapy for the treatment of canine thyroid carcinoma, Aust Vet J 83:208, 2005. Medline abstracts
  31. Guptill L, Scott-Moncrieff CR, Janovitz EB, et al: Response to high-dose radioactive iodine administration in cats with thyroid carcinoma that had previously undergone surgery, J Am Vet Med Assoc 207:1055, 1995. Medline abstracts
  32. Turrel JM, Feldman EC, Nelson RW, et al: Thyroid carcinoma causing hyperthyroidism in cats: 14 cases (1981-1986), J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:359, 1988. Medline abstracts
  33. Ogilvie GK, Reynolds HA, Richardson RC, et al: Phase II evaluation of doxorubicin for treatment of various canine neoplasms, J Am Vet Med Assoc 195:1580, 1989. Medline abstracts
  34. Knapp DW, Richardson RC, Bonney PL, et al: Cisplatin therapy in 41 dogs with malignant tumors, J Vet Intern Med 2:41, 1988. Medline abstracts
  35. Fineman LS, Hamilton TA, de Gortari A, Bonney P: Cisplatin chemotherapy for treatment of thyroid carcinoma in dogs: 13 cases, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 34:109, 1998. Medline abstracts
  36. Hammer AS, Couto CG, Ayl RD, et al: Treatment of tumor-bearing dogs with actinomycin D, J Vet Intern Med 8:236, 1994. Medline abstracts

Section C: Parathyroid Tumors

  1. Feldman EC, Hoar B, Pollard R, Nelson RW: Pretreatment clinical and laboratory findings in dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism: 210 cases (1987-2004), J Am Vet Med Assoc 227: 756, 2005. Medline abstracts
  2. Wright KN, Breitschwerdt EB, Feldman JM, et al: Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations in a hypercalcemic dog with multiple endocrine neoplasia, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 31:156, 1995. Medline abstracts
  3. Marquez GA, Klausner JS, Osborne CA: Calcium oxalate urolithiasis in a cat with a functional parathyroid adenocarcinoma, J Am Vet Med Assoc 206:817, 1995. Medline abstracts
  4. Kaplan E: Primary hyperparathyroidism and concurrent hyperthyroidism in a cat, Can Vet J 43:117, 2002. Medline abstracts
  5. Gear RNA, Neiger R, Skelly BJS, Herrtage ME: Primary Hyperparathyroidism in 29 dogs: Diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and associated renal failure, J Small Anim Pract 46:10, 2005. Medline abstracts
  6. Wisner ER, Nyland TG: Ultrasonography of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 28:973, 1998. Medline abstracts
  7. Wisner ER, Penninck D, Biller DS, et al: High-resolution thyroid sonography, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 38:462, 1997. Medline abstracts
  8. Sueda MT, Stefanacci JD: Ultrasound evaluation of the parathyroid glands in two hypercalcemic cats, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 41:448, 2000. Medline abstracts
  9. Matwichuk CL, Taylor SM, Wilkinson AA, et al: Use of technetium Tc 99m sestamibi for detection of a parathyroid adenoma in a dog with primary hyperparathyroidism, J Am Vet Med Assoc 209:1733, 1996. Medline abstracts
  10. Matwichuk CL, Taylor SM, Daniel GB, et al: Double-phase parathyroid scintigraphy in dogs using technetium-99M-sestamibi, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 41:461, 2000. Medline abstracts
  11. Pollard RE, Long CD, Nelson RW, et al: Percutaneous ultrasonographically guided radiofrequency heat ablation for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 218:1106, 2001. Medline abstracts
  12. Long CD, Goldstein RE, Hornof WJ, et al: Percutaneous ultrasound-guided chemical parathyroid ablation for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 215:217, 1999. Medline abstracts
  13. Chew D, Nagode L: Treatment of hypoparathyroidism. In Bonagura J: Kirk’s current veterinary therapy: xiii small animal practice. Philadelphia, 2000, WB Saunders, p 340.
  14. Feldman EC: Disorders of the parathyroid glands. In Ettinger S, Feldman E: Textbook of veterinary and internal medicine: diseases of the dog and cat. Philadelphia, 2000, WB Saunders, p 1379.

Section D: Endocrine Pancreatic Tumors

  1. Allenspach K, Arnold P, Glaus T, et al: Glucagon-producing neuroendocrine tumour associated with hypoaminoacidaemia and skin lesions, J Small Anim Pract 41:402, 2000. Medline abstracts
  2. Altschul M, Simpson KW, Dykes NL, et al: Evaluation of somatostatin analogues for the detection and treatment of gastrinoma in a dog, J Small Anim Pract 38:286, 1997. Medline abstracts
  3. Fukushima R, Ichikawa K, Hirabayashi M, et al: A case of canine gastrinoma, J Vet Med Sci 66:993, 2004. Medline abstracts
  4. Fukushima U, Sato M, Okano S, et al: A case of gastrinoma in a Shih-Tzu dog, J Vet Med Sci 66:311, 2004. Medline abstracts
  5. Galac S, Kooistra HS, Voorhout G, et al: Hyperadrenocorticism in a dog due to ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone, Domest Anim Endocrinol 28:338, 2005. Medline abstracts
  6. Garden OA, Reubi JC, Dykes NL, et al: Somatostatin receptor imaging in vivo by planar scintigraphy facilitates the diagnosis of canine insulinomas, J Vet Intern Med 19:168, 2005. Medline abstracts
  7. Green RA, Gartrell CL: Gastrinoma: a retrospective study of four cases (1985-1995), J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 33:524, 1997. Medline abstracts
  8. Hawks D, Peterson ME, Hawkins KL, et al: Insulin-secreting pancreatic (islet cell) carcinoma in a cat, J Vet Intern Med 6:193, 1992. Medline abstracts
  9. Hecht S, Penninck DG, Keating JH: Imaging findings in pancreatic neoplasia and nodular hyperplasia in 19 cats, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 48:45, 2007. Medline abstracts
  10. Hughes SM: Canine gastrinoma: a case study and literature review of therapeutic options, N Z Vet J 54:242, 2006. Medline abstracts
  11. Kirchhof N, Geiss V: Multihormonal pancreatic endocrine tumor in a European lynx (Lynx lynx), Vet Pathol 32:88, 1995. Medline abstracts
  12. Lamb CR, Simpson KW, Boswood A, et al: Ultrasonography of pancreatic neoplasia in the dog: a retrospective review of 16 cases, Vet Rec 137:65, 1995. Medline abstracts
  13. Leifer CE, Peterson ME, Matus RE: Insulin-secreting tumor: diagnosis and medical and surgical management in 55 dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:60, 1986. Medline abstracts
  14. Lester NV, Newell SM, Hill RC, et al: Scintigraphic diagnosis of insulinoma in a dog, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 40:174, 1999. Medline abstracts
  15. Marchevsky AM, Yovich JC, Wyatt KM: Pancreatic pseudocyst causing extrahepatic biliary obstruction in a dog, Aust Vet J 78:99, 2000. Medline abstracts
  16. Mellanby RJ, Herrtage ME: Insulinoma in a normoglycaemic dog with low serum fructosamine, J Small Anim Pract 43:506, 2002. Medline abstracts
  17. Moore AS, Nelson RW, Henry CJ, et al: Streptozocin for treatment of pancreatic islet cell tumors in dogs: 17 cases (1989-1999), J Am Vet Med Assoc 221:811, 2002. Medline abstracts
  18. Myers NC, III, Andrews GA, Chard-Bergstrom C: Chromogranin A plasma concentration and expression in pancreatic islet cell tumors of dogs and cats, Am J Vet Res 58:615, 1997. Medline abstracts
  19. Quigley KA, Jackson ML, Haines DM: Hyperlipasemia in 6 dogs with pancreatic or hepatic neoplasia: evidence for tumor lipase production, Vet Clin Pathol 30:114, 2001. Medline abstracts
  20. Reimer SB, Pelosi A, Frank JD, et al: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I in a cat, J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:101, 86, 2005. Medline abstracts
  21. Robben JH, Pollak YW, Kirpensteijn J, et al: Comparison of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography for the detection and localization of canine insulinoma, J Vet Intern Med 19:15, 2005. Medline abstracts
  22. Robben JH, van den Brom WE, Mol JA, et al: Effect of octreotide on plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, and cortisol in healthy dogs and dogs with insulinoma, Res Vet Sci 80:25, 2006. Medline abstracts
  23. Shimada A, Morita T, Ikeda N, et al: Hypoglycaemic brain lesions in a dog with insulinoma, J Comp Pathol 122:67, 2000. Medline abstracts
  24. Smith SA, Biller DS: Resolution of a pancreatic pseudocyst in a dog following percutaneous ultrasonographic-guided drainage, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 34:515, 1998. Medline abstracts
  25. Thoresen SI, Aleksandersen M, Lonaas L, et al: Pancreatic insulin-secreting carcinoma in a dog: fructosamine for determining persistent hypoglycaemia, J Small Anim Pract 36:282, 1995. Medline abstracts
  26. Torres S, Johnson K, McKeever P, et al: Superficial necrolytic dermatitis and a pancreatic endocrine tumour in a dog, J Small Anim Pract 38:246, 1997. Medline abstracts
  27. Torres SM, Caywood DD, O’Brien TD, et al: Resolution of superficial necrolytic dermatitis following excision of a glucagon-secreting pancreatic neoplasm in a dog, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 33:313, 1997. Medline abstracts
  28. Van HL, Braund KG, Roels S, et al: Treatment of a dog with an insulinoma-related peripheral polyneuropathy with corticosteroids, Vet Rec 141:98, 1997. Medline abstracts
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