Henry: Cancer Management in Small Animal Practice

Chapter 13: Managing Oncologic Emergencies


Section A: Tumor- and Treatment-Related Complications

  1. Chun R, Garrett LD, Henry C, et al: Toxicity and efficacy of cisplatin and doxorubicin combination chemotherapy for the treatment of canine osteosarcoma, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 41:382, 2005. Medline abstracts
  2. MacDonald VS, Thamm DH, Kurzman ID, et al: Does L-asparaginase influence efficacy or toxicity when added to a standard CHOP protocol for dogs with lymphoma, J Vet Intern Med 19:732, 2005. Medline abstracts
  3. Langova V, Mutsaers AJ, Phillips B, et al: Treatment of eight dogs with nasal tumours with alternating doses of doxorubicin and carboplatin in conjunction with oral piroxicam, Aust Vet J 82:676, 2004. Medline abstracts
  4. Kosarek CE, Kisseberth WC, Gallant SL, et al: Clinical evaluation of gemcitabine in dogs with spontaneously occurring malignancies, J Vet Intern Med 19:81, 2005. Medline abstracts
  5. Hostutler RA, Chew DJ, Jaeger JQ, et al: Uses and effectiveness of pamidronate disodium for treatment of dogs and cats with hypercalcemia, J Vet Intern Med 19:29, 2005. Medline abstracts
  6. LeBlanc AK, LaDue TA, Turrel JM, et al: Unexpected toxicity following use of gemcitabine as a radiosensitizer in head and neck carcinomas: a Veterinary Radiation Therapy Oncology Group pilot study, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 45:466, 2004. Medline abstracts
  7. Kent MS, Strom A, London CA, et al: Alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin as adjunctive chemotherapy to amputation or limb-sparing surgery in the treatment of appendicular osteosarcoma in dogs, J Vet Intern Med 18:540, 2004. Medline abstracts
  8. Sorenmo KU, Baez JL, Clifford CA, et al: Efficacy and toxicity of a dose-intensified doxorubicin protocol in canine hemangiosarcoma, J Vet Intern Med 18:209, 2004. Medline abstracts
  9. Davies DR, Wyatt KM, Jardine JE, et al: Vinblastine and prednisolone as adjunctive therapy for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 40:124, 2004. Medline abstracts
  10. Ahaus EA, Couto CG, Valerius KD: Hematological toxicity of doxorubicin-containing protocols in dogs with spontaneously occurring malignant tumors, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 36:422, 2000. Medline abstracts
  11. Boyce KL, Kitchell BE: Treatment of canine lymphoma with COPLA/LVP, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 36:395, 2000. Medline abstracts
  12. Valerius KD, Ogilvie GK, Mallinckrodt CH, et al: Doxorubicin alone or in combination with asparaginase, followed by cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone for treatment of multicentric lymphoma in dogs: 121 cases (1987-1995), J Am Vet Med Assoc 210:512, 1997. Medline abstracts
  13. Poirier VJ, Hershey AE, Burgess KE, et al: Efficacy and toxicity of paclitaxel (Taxol) for the treatment of canine malignant tumors, J Vet Intern Med 18:219, 2004. Medline abstracts
  14. Northrup NC, Rassnick KM, Snyder LA, et al: Neutropenia associated with vincristine and L-asparaginase induction chemotherapy for canine lymphoma, J Vet Intern Med 16:570, 2002. Medline abstracts
  15. Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group: Common terminology criteria for adverse events (VCOG-CTCAE) following chemotherapy or biological antineoplastic therapy in dogs and cats v1.0, Vet Comp Oncol 2(4):195, 2004. Medline abstracts
  16. Plumb DC: Filgrastim. In Plumb DC (ed): Veterinary drug handbook, Ames, 2005, Blackwell Publishing.
  17. Henry CJ, Buss MS, Lothrup CD: Veterinary use of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Part I: Oncology, Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 20:728, 1998.
  18. Henry CJ, Buss MS, Potter KA, et al: Mitoxantrone and cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy for the treatment of various canine malignancies, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 35:236, 1999. Medline abstracts
  19. Moore AS, London CA, Wood CA, et al: Lomustine (CCNU) for the treatment of resistant lymphoma in dogs, J Vet Intern Med 13:395, 1999. Medline abstracts
  20. Alvarez FJ, Kisseberth WC, Gallant SL, et al: Dexamethasone, melphalan, actinomycin D, cytosine arabinoside (DMAC) protocol for dogs with relapsed lymphoma, J Vet Intern Med 20:1178, 2006. Medline abstracts
  21. Rassnick KM, Mauldin GE, Al-Sarraf R, et al: MOPP chemotherapy for treatment of resistant lymphoma in dogs: a retrospective study of 117 cases (1989-2000), J Vet Intern Med 16:576, 2002. Medline abstracts
  22. Baskin CR, Couto CG, Wittum TE: Factors influencing first remission and survival in 145 dogs with lymphoma: a retrospective study, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 36:404, 2000. Medline abstracts
  23. Couto CG: Complications of Cancer Chemotherapy. In Nelson RW, Couto CG (eds): Small animal internal medicine. St Louis, 2003, Mosby.
  24. DeRegis CJ, Moore AS, Rand WM, et al: Cisplatin and doxorubicin toxicosis in dogs with osteosarcoma, J Vet Intern Med 17:668, 2003. Medline abstracts
  25. Moore AS, Cotter SM, Rand WM, et al: Evaluation of a discontinuous treatment protocol (VELCAP-S) for canine lymphoma, J Vet Intern Med 15:348, 2001. Medline abstracts
  26. Rassnick KM, Ruslander DM, Cotter SM, et al: Use of carboplatin for treatment of dogs with malignant melanoma: 27 cases (1989-2000), J Am Vet Med Assoc 218:1444, 2001. Medline abstracts
  27. Kristal O, Rassnick KM, Gliatto JM, et al: Hepatotoxicity associated with CCNU (lomustine) chemotherapy in dogs, J Vet Intern Med 18:75, 2004. Medline abstracts
  28. Teske E, Rutteman GR, van Heerde P, et al: Polyethylene glycol-L-asparaginase versus native L-asparaginase in canine non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Eur J Cancer 26:891, 1990. Medline abstracts
  29. Hansen JF, Carpenter RH: Fatal acute systemic anaphylaxis and hemorrhagic pancreatitis following asparaginase treatment in the dog, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 19:977, 1983.
  30. Moriello KA, Bowen D, Meyer DJ: Acute pancreatitis in two dogs given azathioprine and prednisone, J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:695, 1987. Medline abstracts
  31. Hammer AS, Couto CG, Filppi J, et al: Efficacy and toxicity of VAC chemotherapy (vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide) in dogs with hemangiosarcoma, J Vet Intern Med 5:160, 1991. Medline abstracts
  32. Loar AS, Susaneck SJ: Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in five dogs, Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 1:68, 1986. Medline abstracts
  33. Khanna C, Lund EM, Redic KA, et al: Randomized controlled trial of doxorubicin versus dactinomycin in a multiagent protocol for treatment of dogs with malignant lymphoma, J Am Vet Med Assoc 213:985, 1998. Medline abstracts
  34. Christiansen S, Redmann K, Scheld HH, et al: Adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy in the dog--an appropriate model for research on partial left ventriculectomy? J Heart Lung Transplant 21:783, 2002. Medline abstracts
  35. Ogilvie GK, Richardson RC, Curtis CR, et al: Acute and short-term toxicosis associated with the administration of doxorubicin to dogs with malignant tumors, J Am Vet Med Assoc 195:1584, 1989. Medline abstracts
  36. Gralla EJ, Fleischman RW, Luthra YK, et al: The dosing schedule dependent toxicities of Adriamycin in beagle dogs and Rhesus monkeys, Toxicology 13:263, 1979. Medline abstracts
  37. Speyer JL, Green MD, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, et al: ICRF-187 permits longer treatment with doxorubicin in women with breast cancer, J Clin Oncol 10:117, 1992. Medline abstracts
  38. Herman EH, Ferrans VJ: Reduction of chronic doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in dogs by pretreatment with (+/-)-1,2-bis(3,5-dioxopiperazinyl-1-yl)propane (ICRF-187), Cancer Res 41:3436, 1981. Medline abstracts
  39. Wiseman LR, Spencer CM: Dexrazoxane. A review of its use as a cardioprotective agent in patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy, Drugs 56:385, 1998. Medline abstracts
  40. Working PK Newman MS, Sullivan T, et al: Reduction of the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rabbits and dogs by encapsulation in long-circulating pegylated liposomes, J Pharmacol Exp Ther 289:1128, 1999. Medline abstracts
  41. Vail DM, Kravis LD, Cooley AJ, et al: Preclinical trial of doxorubicin entrapped in sterically stabilized liposomes in dogs with spontaneously arising malignant tumors, Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 39:410, 1997. Medline abstracts
  42. Charney SC, Bergman PJ, Hohenhaus AE, et al: Risk factors for sterile hemorrhagic cystitis in dogs with lymphoma receiving cyclophosphamide with or without concurrent administration of furosemide: 216 cases (1990-1996), J Am Vet Med Assoc 222:1388, 2003. Medline abstracts
  43. Rassnick KM, Frimberger AE, Wood CA, et al: Evaluation of ifosfamide for treatment of various canine neoplasms, J Vet Intern Med 14:271, 2000. Medline abstracts
  44. Dhaliwal RS, Kitchell BE: Cyclophosphamide: Pharmprofile, Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 21:1059, 1999.
  45. Weller RE: Intravesical instillation of dilute formalin for treatment of cyclophosphamide induced cystitis in two dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 172:1206, 1978. Medline abstracts
  46. Laing EJ, Miller CW, Cochrane SM: Treatment of cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis in five dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:233, 1988. Medline abstracts
  47. Knapp DW, Richardson RC, DeNicola DB, et al: Cisplatin toxicity in cats, J Vet Intern Med 1:29, 1987. Medline abstracts
  48. Henness AM, Theilen GH, Madewell BR, et al: Neurotoxicosis associated with use of 5-florouracil, J Am Vet Med Assoc 171:692, 1977. Medline abstracts
  49. Theilen G: Adverse effect from use of 5% fluorouracil, J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:276, 1987. Medline abstracts
  50. Okeda R, Shibutani M, Matsuo T, et al: Subacute neurotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil and its derivative, carmofur, in cats, Acta Pathol Jpn 38:1255, 1988. Medline abstracts
  51. Harvey HJ, MacEwen EG, Hayes AA: Neurotoxicosis associated with use of 5-fluorouracil in five dogs and one cat, J Am Vet Med Assoc 171:277, 1977. Medline abstracts
  52. Hamilton TA, Cook JR Jr, Braund KG, et al: Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in a dog, J Am Vet Med Assoc 198:635, 1991. Medline abstracts
  53. Nadeau ME, Kitchell BE, Rooks RL, et al: Cobalt radiation with or without low-dose cisplatin for treatment of canine naso-sinus carcinomas, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 45:362, 2004. Medline abstracts
  54. Boria PA, Murry DJ, Bennett PF, et al: Evaluation of cisplatin combined with piroxicam for the treatment of oral malignant melanoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 224:388, 2004. Medline abstracts
  55. Mohammed SI, Craig BA, Mutsaers AJ, et al: Effects of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, piroxicam, in combination with chemotherapy on tumor response, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in a canine model of human invasive urinary bladder cancer, Mol Cancer Ther 2:183, 2003. Medline abstracts
  56. Knapp DW, Glickman NW, Widmer WR, et al: Cisplatin versus cisplatin combined with piroxicam in a canine model of human invasive urinary bladder cancer, Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 46:221, 2000. Medline abstracts
  57. Cotter SM: Renal disease in five tumor bearing cats treated with Adriamycin, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 21:405, 1985.
  58. O’Keefe DA, Sisson DD, Gelberg HB, et al: Systemic toxicity associated with doxorubicin administration in cats, J Vet Intern Med 7:309, 1993. Medline abstracts
  59. Piek CJ, Teske E: Tumor lysis syndrome in a dog, Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 121:64, 1996. Medline abstracts
  60. Page RL: Acute tumor lysis syndrome, Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 1:58, 1986. Medline abstracts

Section B: Treatment of Chemotherapy Extravasations

  1. Dorr RT: Antidotes to vesicant chemotherapy extravasations, Blood Rev 4:41, 1990. Medline abstracts
  2. Ener RA, Meglathery SB, Styler M: Extravasation of systemic hemato-oncological therapies, Ann Oncol 15:858, 2004. Medline abstracts
  3. Simonson E, Eisert LK, Madewell BR: Massive local tissue necrosis, Veterinary Forum 45, 2000.
  4. Sonneveld P, Wassenaar HA, Nooter K: Long persistence of doxorubicin in human skin after extravasation, Cancer Treat Rep 68:895, 1984. Medline abstracts
  5. Jensen JN, Lock-Andersen J, Langer SW, et al: Dexrazoxane: a promising antidote in the treatment of accidental extravasation of anthracyclines, Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 37:174, 2003. Medline abstracts
  6. Langer SW, Thougaard AV, Sehested M, et al: Treatment of anthracycline extravasation in mice with dexrazoxane with or without DMSO and hydrocortisone, Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 57(1):125, 2006. Medline abstracts
  7. Bertelli G, Dini D, Forno GB, et al: Hyaluronidase as an antidote to extravasation to vinca alkaloids, J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 120:505, 1994. Medline abstracts
  8. Laurie SW, Wilson KL, Kernahan DA, et al: Intravenous extravasation injuries: the effectiveness of hyaluronidase in their treatment, Ann Plast Surg 13:191, 1984. Medline abstracts
  9. Dorr RT, Soble M, Alberts DS: Efficacy of sodium thiosulfate as a antidote to mechlorethamine skin toxicity in the mouse, Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 22:299, 1988. Medline abstracts
  10. Howell SB, Taetle R: Effect of sodium thiosulfate on cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II) toxicity and antitumor activity in L1210 leukemia, Cancer Treatment Rep 64:611, 1980. Medline abstracts
  11. Dorr RT, Soble MJ, Liddi JD, et al: Mitomycin C toxicity studies in mice: reduced ulceration and altered pharmacokinetics with topical dimethyl sulfoxide, J Clin Oncol 4:1399, 1986. Medline abstracts
  12. Ignoffo RJ, Frideman MA: Therapy of local toxicities caused by extravasation of cancer chemotherapeutic agents, Cancer Treat Rev 7:17, 1980. Medline abstracts

Section C: Transfusion Considerations

  1. Kerl ME, Hohenhaus AE: Packed red cell transfusions in dogs: 131 cases (1989), J Am Vet Med Assoc 202:1495, 1993. Medline abstracts
  2. Callan MB, Oakley DA, Shofer FS et al: Canine red blood cell transfusion practice, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 32:303, 1996. Medline abstracts
  3. Klaser DA, Reine NJ, Hohenhaus AE: Red blood cell transfusions in cats: 126 cases (1999), J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:920, 2005. Medline abstracts
  4. Castellanos I, Couto CG, Gray TL: Clinical use of blood products in cats: a retrospective study (1997-2000), J Vet Intern Med 18:529, 2004. Medline abstracts
  5. Weingart C, Giger U, Kohn B: Whole blood transfusions in 91 cats: a clinical evaluation, J Feline Med Surg 6:139, 2004. Medline abstracts
  6. Waldrop JE, Rozanski EA, Freeman LM, et al: Packed red blood cell transfusions in dogs with gastrointestinal hemorrhage: 55 cases (1999-2001), J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 39:523, 2003. Medline abstracts
  7. Adams WM, Bjorling DE, McAnulty JF, et al: Outcome of accelerated radiotherapy alone or accelerated radiotherapy followed by exenteration of the nasal cavity in dogs with intranasal neoplasia: 53 cases (1990-2002), J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:936, 2005. Medline abstracts
  8. Abrams-Ogg A: Practical blood transfusion. In Day MJ, Mackin A, Littlewood JD (eds): BSAVA manual of canine and feline haematology and transfusion medicine. Quedgeley, Glouchester, 2000, British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
  9. Lisciandro SC, Hohenhaus AE, Brooks MB: Coagulation abnormalities in 22 cats with naturally occurring liver disease, J Vet Int Med 12:71, 1998. Medline abstracts
  10. Hammer AS, Couto CG, Swardson C, et al: Hemostatic abnormalities in dogs with hemangiosarcoma, J Vet Int Med 5:11, 1991. Medline abstracts
  11. Estrin MA, Wehausen CE, Jessen CR, et al: Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cats, J Vet Intern Med 20:1289, 2006. Medline abstracts
  12. Logan JC, Callan MB, Drew K, et al: Clinical indications for use of fresh frozen plasma in dogs: 74 dogs (October through December 1999), J Am Vet Med Assoc 218:1449, 2001. Medline abstracts
  13. Wardrop KJ: Canine plasma therapy, Vet Forum 14:36, 1997.
  14. Grindem CB, Breitschwerdt EB, Corbett WT, et al: Thrombocytopenia associated with neoplasia in dogs, J Vet Int Med 8:400, 1984.
  15. Jordan HL, Grindem CB, Breitschwerdt EB: Thrombocytopenia in cats a retrospective study of 41 cases, J Vet Int Med 7:261, 1993. Medline abstracts
  16. Schneider A: Blood  components: collection, processing and storage, Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 25:1245, 1995. Medline abstracts
  17. Hohenhaus AE: Transfusion reactions. In Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds): Schalm’s veterinary hematology, ed 5. Philadelphia, 2000, Lippincott, William & Wilkins.