Henry: Cancer Management in Small Animal Practice

Chapter 11: Paraneoplastic Syndromes


  1. Rosol TJ, Capen CC: Mechanisms of cancer-induced hypercalcemia, Lab Invest 67:680, 1992. Medline abstracts
  2. Rosol TJ, Nagode LA, Couto CG, et al: Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related protein, PTH, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in dogs with cancer-associated hypercalcemia, Endocrinology 131:1157, 1992. Medline abstracts
  3. Bolliger AP, Graham PA, Richard V, et al: Detection of parathyroid hormone-related protein in cats with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy, Vet Clin Pathol 31:3, 2002. Medline abstracts
  4. Pressler BM, Rotstein DS, Law JM, et al: Hypercalcemia and high parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration associated with malignant melanoma in a dog, J Am Vet Med Assoc 221:263, 2002. Medline abstracts
  5. Day MJ: Review of thymic pathology in 30 cats and 36 dogs, J Small Anim Pract 38:393, 1997. Medline abstracts
  6. Ross JT, Scavelli TD, Matthiesen DT, et al: Adenocarcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs: a review of 32 cases, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 27:349, 1991.
  7. Hammer AS, Couto CG: Complications of multiple myeloma, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 30:9, 1994.
  8. Anderson TE, Legendre AM, McEntee MM: Probable hypercalcemia of malignancy in a cat with bronchogenic adenocarcinoma, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 36:52, 2000. Medline abstracts
  9. Rosenberg MP, Matus RE, Patnaik AK: Prognostic factors in dogs with lymphoma and associated hypercalcemia, J Vet Intern Med 5:268, 1991. Medline abstracts
  10. Bienzle D, Silverstein DC, Chaffin K: Multiple myeloma in cats: variable presentation with different immunoglobulin isotypes in two cats, Vet Pathol 37:364, 2000. Medline abstracts
  11. Williams LE, Gliatto JM, Dodge RK, et al: Carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs: 113 cases (1985-1995), J Am Vet Med Assoc 223:825, 2003. Medline abstracts
  12. Bennett PF, DeNicola DB, Bonney P, et al: Canine anal sac adenocarcinomas: clinical presentation and response to therapy, J Vet Intern Med 16:100, 2002. Medline abstracts
  13. Patel RT, Caceres A, French AF, et al: Multiple myeloma in 16 cats: a retrospective study, Vet Clin Pathol 34:341, 2005. Medline abstracts
  14. Fournel-Fleury C, Ponce F, Felman P, et al: Canine T-cell lymphomas: a morphological, immunological, and clinical study of 46 new cases, Vet Pathol 39:92, 2002. Medline abstracts
  15. Seymour JF, Gagel RF: Calcitriol: the major humoral mediator of hypercalcemia in Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, Blood 82:1383, 1993. Medline abstracts
  16. Seymour JF, Gagel RF, Hagemeister FB, et al: Calcitriol production in hypercalcemic and normocalcemic patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma [see comments], Ann Intern Med 121:633, 1994. Medline abstracts
  17. Gerber B, Hauser B, Reusch CE: Serum levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in dogs with hypercalcaemia, Vet Res Commun 28:669, 2004. Medline abstracts
  18. Peterson ME, Kintzer PP, Kass PH: Pretreatment clinical and laboratory findings in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism: 225 cases (1979-1993), J Am Vet Med Assoc 208:85, 1996. Medline abstracts
  19. Midkiff AM, Chew DJ, Randolph JF, et al: Idiopathic hypercalcemia in cats, J Vet Intern Med 14:619, 2000. Medline abstracts
  20. Fradkin JM, Braniecki AM, Craig TM, et al: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein and hypercalcemia in two dogs with schistosomiasis, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 37:349, 2001. Medline abstracts
  21. Mealey KL, Willard MD, Nagode LA, et al: Hypercalcemia associated with granulomatous disease in a cat, J Am Vet Med Assoc 215:959, 1999. Medline abstracts
  22. Hostutler RA, Chew DJ, Jaeger JQ, et al: Uses and effectiveness of pamidronate disodium for treatment of dogs and cats with hypercalcemia, J Vet Intern Med 19:29, 2005. Medline abstracts
  23. Milner RJ, Farese J, Henry CJ, et al: Bisphosphonates and cancer, J Vet Intern Med 18:597, 2004. Medline abstracts
  24. Caywood DD, Klausner JS, O’Leary TP, et al: Pancreatic insulin-secreting neoplasms: clinical, diagnostic, and prognostic features in 73 dogs, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 24:577, 1987.
  25. Leifer CE, Peterson ME, Matus RE: Insulin-secreting tumor: diagnosis and medical and surgical management in 55 dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:60, 1986. Medline abstracts
  26. Hawks D, Peterson ME, Hawkins KL, et al: Insulin-secreting pancreatic (islet cell) carcinoma in a cat, J Vet Intern Med 6:193, 1992. Medline abstracts
  27. Bagley RS, Levy JK, Malarkey DE: Hypoglycemia associated with intra-abdominal leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma in six dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 208:69, 1996. Medline abstracts
  28. Beaudry D, Knapp DW, Montgomery T, et al: Hypoglycemia in four dogs with smooth muscle tumors, J Vet Intern Med 9:415, 1995. Medline abstracts
  29. Cohen M, Post GS, Wright JC: Gastrointestinal leiomyosarcoma in 14 dogs, J Vet Intern Med 17:107, 2003. Medline abstracts
  30. Gabor LJ, Canfield PJ, Malik R: Haematological and biochemical findings in cats in Australia with lymphosarcoma, Aust Vet J 78:456, 2000. Medline abstracts
  31. Strombeck DR, Krum S, Meyer D, et al: Hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemia associated with hepatoma in a dog, J Am Vet Med Assoc 169:811, 1976. Medline abstracts
  32. Battaglia L, Petterino C, Zappulli V, Castagnaro M: Hypoglycaemia as a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with renal adenocarcinoma in a dog, Vet Res Commun 29:671, 2005. Medline abstracts
  33. Leifer CE, Peterson ME, Matus RE, Patnaik AK: Hypoglycemia associated with nonislet cell tumor in 13 dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 186:53, 1985. Medline abstracts
  34. Fischer JR, Smith SA, Harkin KR: Glucagon constant-rate infusion: a novel strategy for the management of hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic crisis in the dog, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 36:27, 2000. Medline abstracts
  35. Tobin RL, Nelson RW, Lucroy MD, et al: Outcome of surgical versus medical treatment of dogs with beta cell neoplasia: 39 cases (1990-1997), J Am Vet Med Assoc 215:226, 1999. Medline abstracts
  36. Sherding RG, Wilson GP, Kociba GJ: Bone marrow hypoplasia in eight dogs with Sertoli cell tumor, J Am Vet Med Assoc 178:497, 1981. Medline abstracts
  37. Weaver AD: Survey with follow-up of 67 dogs with testicular Sertoli cell tumours, Vet Rec 113:105, 1983. Medline abstracts
  38. Madewell BR, Feldman BF: Characterization of anemias associated with neoplasia in small animals, J Am Vet Med Assoc 176:419, 1980. Medline abstracts
  39. Prymak C, McKee LJ, Goldschmidt MH, et al: Epidemiologic, clinical, pathologic, and prognostic characteristics of splenic hemangiosarcoma and splenic hematoma in dogs: 217 cases (1985), J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:706, 1988. Medline abstracts
  40. Aronsohn M: Cardiac hemangiosarcoma in the dog: a review of 38 cases, J Am Vet Med Assoc 187:922, 1985. Medline abstracts
  41. Scavelli TD, Patnaik AK, Mehlhaff CJ, et al: Hemangiosarcoma in the cat: retrospective evaluation of 31 surgical cases, J Am Vet Med Assoc 187:817, 1985. Medline abstracts
  42. Spangler WL, Culbertson MR: Prevalence, type, and importance of splenic diseases in dogs: 1,480 cases (1985-1989), J Am Vet Med Assoc 200:829, 1992. Medline abstracts
  43. Kraje AC, Mears EA, Hahn KA, et al: Unusual metastatic behavior and clinicopathologic findings in eight cats with cutaneous or visceral hemangiosarcoma, J Am Vet Med Assoc 214:670, 1999. Medline abstracts
  44. Hammer AS, Couto CG, Swardson C, Getzy D: Hemostatic abnormalities in dogs with hemangiosarcoma, J Vet Intern Med 5:11, 1991. Medline abstracts
  45. Crow SE, Allen DP, Murphy CJ, et al: Concurrent renal adenocarcinoma and polycythemia in a dog, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 31:29, 1995. Medline abstracts
  46. Rogers KS, Walker MA, Dillon HB: Transmissible venereal tumor: a retrospective study of 29 cases, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 34:463, 1998. Medline abstracts
  47. Evans LM, Caylor KB: Polycythemia vera in a cat and management with hydroxyurea, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 31:434, 1995. Medline abstracts
  48. Couto CG, Boudrieau RJ, Zanjani ED: Tumor-associated erythrocytosis in a dog with nasal fibrosarcoma, J Vet Intern Med 3:183, 1989. Medline abstracts
  49. Cook SM, Lothrop CD, Jr: Serum erythropoietin concentrations measured by radioimmunoassay in normal, polycythemic, and anemic dogs and cats, J Vet Intern Med 8:18, 1994. Medline abstracts
  50. Gorse MJ: Polycythemia associated with renal fibrosarcoma in a dog, J Am Vet Med Assoc 192:793, 1988. Medline abstracts
  51. Yamauchi A, Ohta T, Okada T, et al: Secondary erythrocytosis associated with schwannoma in a dog, J Vet Med Sci 66:1605, 2004. Medline abstracts
  52. Campbell KL: Diagnosis and management of polycythemia in dogs, Comp Contin Educ 12:543, 1990.
  53. Moore KW, Stepien RL: Hydroxyurea for treatment of polycythemia secondary to right-to-left shunting patent ductus arteriosus in 4 dogs, J Vet Intern Med 15:418, 2001. Medline abstracts
  54. Peterson ME, Randolph JF: Diagnosis of canine primary polycythemia and management with hydroxyurea, J Am Vet Med Assoc 180:415, 1982. Medline abstracts
  55. Grindem CB, Breitschwerdt EB, Corbett WT, et al: Thrombocytopenia associated with neoplasia in dogs, J Vet Intern Med 8:400, 1994. Medline abstracts
  56. Hargis AM, Feldman BF: Evaluation of hemostatic defects secondary to vascular tumors in dogs: 11 cases (1983-1988), J Am Vet Med Assoc 198:891, 1991. Medline abstracts
  57. Jordan HL, Grindem CB, Breitschwerdt EB: Thrombocytopenia in cats: a retrospective study of 41 cases, J Vet Intern Med 7:261, 1993. Medline abstracts
  58. Madewell BR, Wilson DW, Hornof WJ, et al: Leukemoid blood response and bone infarcts in a dog with renal tubular adenocarcinoma, J Am Vet Med Assoc 197:1623, 1990. Medline abstracts
  59. Lucroy MD, Madewell BR: Clinical outcome and diseases associated with extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis in cats: 104 cases (1991-1999), J Am Vet Med Assoc 218:736, 2001. Medline abstracts
  60. Lappin MR, Latimer KS: Hematuria and extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis in a dog with renal tubular carcinoma, J Am Vet Med Assoc 192:1289, 1988. Medline abstracts
  61. Knottenbelt CM, Simpson JW, Chandler ML: Neutrophilic leucocytosis in a dog with a rectal tumour, J Small Anim Pract 41:457, 2000. Medline abstracts
  62. Thompson JP, Christopher MM, Ellison GW, et al: Paraneoplastic leukocytosis associated with a rectal adenomatous polyp in a dog, J Am Vet Med Assoc 201:737, 1992. Medline abstracts
  63. Sharkey LC, Rosol TJ, Grone A, et al: Production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by carcinomas in a dog and a cat with paraneoplastic leukocytosis, J Vet Intern Med 10:405, 1996. Medline abstracts
  64. Matus RE, Leifer CE, MacEwen EG, et al: Prognostic factors for multiple myeloma in the dog, J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:1288, 1986. Medline abstracts
  65. Giraudel JM, Pages JP, Guelfi JF: Monoclonal gammopathies in the dog: a retrospective study of 18 cases (1986-1999) and literature review, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 38:135, 2002. Medline abstracts
  66. Bartges JW: Therapeutic plasmapheresis, Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 12:170, 1997. Medline abstracts
  67. Forrester SD, Greco DS, Relford RL: Serum hyperviscosity syndrome associated with multiple myeloma in two cats, J Am Vet Med Assoc 200:79, 1992. Medline abstracts
  68. Lainesse MFC, Taylor SM, Myers SL, et al: Focal myasthenia gravis as a paraneoplastic syndrome of canine thymoma: improvement following thymectomy. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 32:111, 1996. Medline abstracts
  69. Atwater SW, Powers BE, Park RD, et al: Thymoma in dogs: 23 cases (1980-1991), J Am Vet Med Assoc 205:1007, 1994. Medline abstracts
  70. Aronsohn MG, Schunk KL, Carpenter JL, et al: Clinical and pathologic features of thymoma in 15 dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 184:1355, 1984. Medline abstracts
  71. Moore AS, Madewell BR, Cardinet GH, et al: Osteogenic sarcoma and myasthenia gravis in a dog, J Am Vet Med Assoc 197:226, 1990. Medline abstracts
  72. Krotje LJ, Fix AS, Potthoff AD: Acquired myasthenia gravis and cholangiocellular carcinoma in a dog, J Am Vet Med Assoc 197:488, 1990. Medline abstracts
  73. Dewey CW, Coates JR, Ducote JM, et al: Azathioprine therapy for acquired myasthenia gravis in five dogs, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 35:396, 1999. Medline abstracts
  74. Gores BR, Berg J, Carpenter JL, et al: Surgical treatment of thymoma in cats: 12 cases (1987-1992), J Am Vet Med Assoc 204:1782, 1994. Medline abstracts
  75. Bergman PJ, Bruyette DS, Coyne BE, et al: Canine clinical peripheral neuropathy associated with pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, Prog Vet Neur 5:57, 1994.
  76. Mariani CL, Shelton SB, Alsup JC: Paraneoplastic polyneuropathy and subsequent recovery following tumor removal in a dog, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 35:302, 1999. Medline abstracts
  77. Braund KG, McGuire JA, Amling KA, et al: Peripheral neuropathy associated with malignant neoplasms in dogs, Vet Pathol 24:16, 1987. Medline abstracts
  78. Moore AS, Nelson RW, Henry CJ, et al: Streptozocin for treatment of pancreatic islet cell tumors in dogs: 17 cases (1989-1999), J Am Vet Med Assoc 221:811, 2002. Medline abstracts
  79. Tasker S, Griffon DJ, Nuttall TJ, et al: Resolution of paraneoplastic alopecia following surgical removal of a pancreatic carcinoma in a cat, J Small Anim Pract 40:16, 1999. Medline abstracts
  80. Brooks DG, Campbell KL, Dennis JS, et al: Pancreatic paraneoplastic alopecia in three cats, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 30:557, 1994.
  81. Gross TL, O’Brien TD, Davies AP, et al: Glucagon-producing pancreatic endocrine tumors in two dogs with superficial necrolytic dermatitis, J Am Vet Med Assoc 197:1619, 1990. Medline abstracts
  82. Torres SM, Caywood DD, O’Brien TD, et al: Resolution of superficial necrolytic dermatitis following excision of a glucagon-secreting pancreatic neoplasm in a dog, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 33:313, 1997. Medline abstracts
  83. Gross TL, Song MD, Havel PJ, et al: Superficial necrolytic dermatitis (necrolytic migratory erythema) in dogs, Vet Pathol 30:75, 1993. Medline abstracts
  84. Peeters D, Clercx C, Thiry A, et al: Resolution of paraneoplastic leukocytosis and hypertrophic osteopathy after resection of a renal transitional cell carcinoma producing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in a young Bull Terrier, J Vet Intern Med 15:407, 2001. Medline abstracts
  85. Grierson JM, Burton CA, Brearley MJ: Hypertrophic osteopathy secondary to pulmonary sarcoma in a cat, Vet Comp Oncol 1:227, 2003. Medline abstracts
  86. Becker TJ, Perry RL, Watson GL: Regression of hypertrophic osteopathy in a cat after surgical excision of an adrenocortical carcinoma, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 35:499, 1999. Medline abstracts
  87. Seaman RL, Patton CS: Treatment of renal nephroblastoma in an adult dog, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 39:76, 2003. Medline abstracts
  88. Barrand KR, Scudamore CL: Canine hypertrophic osteoarthropathy associated with a malignant Sertoli cell tumour, J Small Anim Pract 42:143, 2001. Medline abstracts
  89. Stephens LC, Gleiser CA, Jardine JH: Primary pulmonary fibrosarcoma associated with Spirocerca lupi infection in a dog with hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy, J Am Vet Med Assoc 182:496, 1983. Medline abstracts
  90. Seiler RJ: Primary pulmonary osteosarcoma in dog with associated hypertrophic osteopathy, Vet Pathol 16:369, 1979. Medline abstracts
  91. Madewell BR, Nyland TG, Weigel JE: Regression of hypertrophic osteopathy following pneumonectomy in a dog, J Am Vet Med Assoc 172:818, 1978. Medline abstracts
  92. Watson AD, Porges WL: Regression of hypertrophic osteopathy in a dog following unilateral intrathoracic vagotomy, Vet Rec 93:240, 1973. Medline abstracts
  93. Michel KE, Sorenmo K, Shofer FS: Evaluation of body condition and weight loss in dogs presented to a veterinary oncology service, J Vet Intern Med 18:692, 2004. Medline abstracts