Henry: Cancer Management in Small Animal Practice

Chapter 10: Advanced Imaging Modalities


Section A: Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

  1. Juweid ME, Cheson BD: Positron-emission tomography and assessment of cancer therapy, N Engl J Med 354:496, 2006. Medline abstracts
  2. Alavi A, Kung JW, Zhuang H: Implications of PET based molecular imaging on the current and future practice of medicine, Semin Nucl Med 34:56, 2004. Medline abstracts
  3. Rohren EM, Turkington TG, Coleman RE: Clinical applications of PET in oncology, Radiology 231:305, 2004. Medline abstracts
  4. Warburg O: On the origin of cancer cells, Science 123:306, 1956. Medline abstracts
  5. Zanzonico P. Positron emission tomography: a review of basic principles, scanner design and performance, and current systems, Semin Nucl Med 34:87, 2004. Medline abstracts
  6. Townsend DW: Physical principles and technology of clinical PET imaging, Ann Acad Med Singapore 33:133, 2004. Medline abstracts
  7. Townsend DW: From 3-D positron emission tomography to 3-D positron emission tomography/computed tomography: what did we learn? Mol Imag Biol 6:275, 2004. Medline abstracts
  8. Beyer T, Townsend DW, Brun T, et al: A combined PET/CT scanner for clinical oncology, J Nucl Med 41:1369, 2000. Medline abstracts
  9. Fowler JS, Ido T: Initial and subsequent approach for the synthesis of 18FDG, Semin Nucl Med 32:6, 2002. Medline abstracts
  10. Cook GJR, Wegner EA, Fogelman I: Pitfalls and artifacts in 18FDG PET and PET/CT oncologic imaging, Semin Nucl Med 34:122, 2004. Medline abstracts
  11. Bassett CLM, Daniel GB, Legendre AM, et al: Characterization of uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose by fungal-associated inflammation: the standardized uptake value is greater for lesions of blastomycosis than for lymphoma in dogs with naturally occurring disease, Mol Imag Biol 4:201, 2002. Medline abstracts
  12. Hustinix R, Benard F, Alavi A: Whole-body FDG-PET imaging in the management of patients with cancer, Semin Nucl Med 32:35, 2002. Medline abstracts
  13. Dobert N, Menzel C, Berner U, et al: Positron emission tomography in patients with Hodgkin’s disease: correlation to histologic subtypes, Cancer Biother Radiopharm 18: 565, 2003. Medline abstracts
  14. Blum RH, Seymour JF, Wirth A, et al. Frequent impact of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on the staging and management of patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Clin Lymphoma 4:50, 2003. Medline abstracts
  15. Friedberg JW, Chengazi V: PET scans in the staging of lymphoma: current status, Oncologist 8:438, 2003. Medline abstracts
  16. Weber WA, Petersen V, Schmidt B, et al: Positron emission tomography in non-small-cell lung cancer: prediction of response to chemotherapy by quantitative assessment of glucose use, J Clin Oncol 21:2651, 2003. Medline abstracts
  17. Bender H, Bandgard N, Metten N, et al: Possible role of FDG-PET in the early prediction of therapy outcome in liver metastases of colorectal cancer, Hybridoma 18:87, 1999. Medline abstracts
  18. Schot B, van Imhoff G, Pruim J, et al: Predictive value of early [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in chemosensitive relapsed lymphoma, Br J Haematol 123:282, 2003. Medline abstracts
  19. Page RL, Garg PK, Garg S, et al: PET Imaging of osteosarcoma in dogs using a fluorine-18-labeled monoclonal antibody Fab fragment, J Nucl Med 35:1506, 1994. Medline abstracts
  20. Matwichuk CL, Daniel GB, Bowman LA, et al: Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in Blastomyces dermatitidis-associated inflammation in a dog, Clin Positron Imaging 2:217, 1999. Medline abstracts
  21. LeBlanc AK, Jakoby B, Townsend DW, et al: Thoracic and abdominal organ uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) with positron emission tomography in the normal dog, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 49(2):182, 2008. Medline abstracts

Section B: Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

  1. Love NE, Kramer RW, Spodnick GJ, et al: Radiographic and computed tomographic evaluation of otitis media in the dog, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 36(5):375, 1995.
  2. Rohleder JJ, Jones JC, Duncan RB, et al: Comparative performance of radiography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of middle ear disease in 31 dogs, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 47(1):45, 2006. Medline abstracts
  3. Huda W, Slone R: Magnetic Resonance. In Review of radiologic physics, ed 2. Philadelphia, 2003, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  4. Buschberg JT, Seibert BS: Computed tomography, In The essential physics of medical imaging, ed 2. Philadelphia, 2002, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkinson.
  5. Tucker RL, Gavin PR: Brain imaging. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 26(4):735, 1996. Medline abstracts
  6. Thomas WB, Wheeler SJ, Kramer R, Kornegay JN: Magnetic resonance imaging features of primary brain tumors in dogs, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 37(1):20, 1996.
  7. Kraft SL, Gavin PR, DeHaan C, et al: Retrospective review of 50 canine intracranial tumors evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging, J Vet Int Med 11:218, 1997. Medline abstracts
  8. McRobbie DW, Moore EA, et al: MRI from picture to proton. Cambridge, UK, 2003, Cambridge University Press.
  9. Kraft SL, Gavin PR: Diffuse cerebral and leptomeningeal astrocytoma in dogs: MR features, J Comput Assist Tomogr 14:555, 1990. Medline abstracts
  10. Turrel JM, Fike JR, LeCouteur RA, Higgins RJ: Computed tomographic characteristics of primary brain tumors in 50 dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:851, 1986. Medline abstracts
  11. Porat-Mosenco Y, Schwarz T, Kass PH: Thick section reformatting of thinly collimated computed tomography for reduction of skull-base-related artifacts in dogs and horses, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 45(2):131, 2004. Medline abstracts
  12. Koblik PD, LeCouteur RA, Higgins RJ, et al: CT-guided brain biopsy using a modified pelorus mark III sterotactic system: experience with 50 dogs, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 40:434, 1999. Medline abstracts
  13. Tidwell AS, Johnson KL: Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy in the dog and cat: description of technique and preliminary evaluation in 14 patients, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 35(6):445, 1994.
  14. Moissonnier P, Blot S, Devauchelle P, et al: Stereotactic CT-guided brain biopsy in the dog, J Small Anim Pract 43:115, 2002. Medline abstracts
  15. Troxel MT, Vite CH, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging features of feline intracranial neoplasia: retrospective analysis of 46 cats, J Vet Intern Med 18:176, 2004. Medline abstracts
  16. Polizopoulou ZS, Koutinas AF, Souftas VD, et al. Diagnostic correlation of CT-MRI and histopathology in 10 dogs with brain neoplasms, J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 51:226, 2004. Medline abstracts
  17. Mattoon JS, Wisner EW: Editorial: What’s under the cat’s hat: feline intracranial neoplasia and magnetic resonance imaging, J Vet Intern Med 18:139, 2004. Medline abstracts
  18. Cherubini GB, Mantis P, Martinez TA, et al: Utility of magnetic resonance imaging for distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic brain lesions in dogs and cats, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 46(5):384, 2005. Medline abstracts
  19. Platt SR, Alleman AR, Lanz OI, Chrisman CL: Comparison of fine-needle aspiration and surgical-tissue biopsy in the diagnosis of canine brain tumors, Vet Surg 31:65, 2002. Medline abstracts
  20. Bush WW, Barr CS, Darrin EW, et al: Results of cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neurologic examination findings, and age at the onset of seizures as predictors for results of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in dogs examined because of seizures: 115 cases (1992-2000), J Am Vet Med Assoc 220:781, 2002. Medline abstracts
  21. Lipsitz D, Levitski RE, Chauvet AE: Magnetic resonance imaging of a choroid plexus carcinoma and meningeal carcinomatosis in a dog, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 40(3):246, 1999. Medline abstracts
  22. Graham JP, Newell SM, Voges AK, et al: The dural tail sign in the diagnosis of meningiomas, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 39(4):297, 1998. Medline abstracts
  23. McDonnell JJ, Tidwell AS, Faissler D, Keating J: Magnetic resonance imaging features of cervical spinal cord meningiomas, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 46(5):368, 2005. Medline abstracts
  24. Mellema LM, Koblik PD, Kortz GD, et al: Reversible magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in dogs following seizures, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 40(6):588, 1999. Medline abstracts
  25. Kent M, Delahunta A, Tidwell AS: MR imaging findings in a dog with intravascular lymphoma in the brain, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 42(6):504, 2001. Medline abstracts
  26. Samii VF, Biller DS, Koblik PD: Normal cross-sectional anatomy of the feline thorax and abdomen: comparison of computed tomography and cadaver anatomy, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 39(6):504, 1998. Medline abstracts
  27. De Rycke LM, Gielen IM, Simoens PJ, et al: Computed tomography and cross-sectional anatomy of the thorax in clinically normal dogs, Am J Vet Res 66:512, 2005. Medline abstracts
  28. Yoon J, Feeney DA, Cronk DE, et al: Computed tomographic evaluation of canine and feline mediastinal masses in 14 patients, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 45(6):542, 2004. Medline abstracts
  29. Some S, Takashima S, Yang Z, et al: Mass screening for lung cancer with mobile spiral computed tomography scanner, Lancet 351:1242, 1998. Medline abstracts
  30. Kaneko M, Eguchi K, Ohmatsu H, et al: Peripheral lung cancer: screening and detection with low-dose spiral CT versus radiography, Radiology 201:798, 1996. Medline abstracts
  31. Vogt FM, Herborn CU, Hunold P, et al: HASTE MRI versus chest radiography in the detection of pulmonary nodules: comparison with MDCT, AJR Am J Roentgenol 183:71, 2004. Medline abstracts
  32. Ginsberg GS, Panicek DM: Subcentimeter pulmonary nodules detected in patients with sarcoma, Sarcoma 4:63, 2000. Medline abstracts
  33. Waters DJ, Coakley FV, Cohen MN, et al: The detection of pulmonary metastases by helical CT, J Comput Assist Tomogr 22:235, 1998. Medline abstracts
  34. Ahrar K, Madoff DC, Gupta S, et al: Development of a large animal model for lung tumors, J Vasc Interv Radiol 13:923, 2002. Medline abstracts
  35. Nemanic S, London CA, Wisner ER: Comparison of thoracic radiographs and single breath-hold helical CT for detection of pulmonary nodules in dogs with metastatic neoplasia, J Vet Int Med 20(3):508, 2006. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2006. Medline abstracts
  36. Cipone M, Diana A, Gandini G, et al: Use of computed tomography in thoracic diseases of small animals, Vet Res Commun 27:381, 2003. Medline abstracts
  37. Burk RL: Computed tomography of thoracic diseases in dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 199:617, 1991. Medline abstracts
  38. Spann DR, Sellon RK, Thrall DE, et al: Computed tomographic diagnosis: use of computed tomography to distinguish a pulmonary mass from alveolar disease, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 39(6):532, 1998. Medline abstracts
  39. Tidwell AS: Uses of computed tomography in cardiopulmonary disease. In: Kirk Current Veterinary Therapy XIII, Philadelphia, 2000, WB Saunders, 709.
  40. Muller NL: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: past present and future, Eur Respir J 35:3s, 2002.
  41. Gavin PR: Cardiac MRI: In Proceedings, ACVIM. Baltimore, 2005, pp 108-109.
  42. Martin D, Semelka M, Semelka R: Imaging of benign and malignant focal liver lesions, MRI Clin North Am 9:785, 2001. Medline abstracts
  43. Muleya JS, Taura Y, Nakaichi M, et al: Appearance of canine abdominal tumors with magnetic resonance imaging using a low field permanent magnet, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 38(6):444, 1997. Medline abstracts
  44. Clifford CA, Pretorius ES, Weisse C, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of focal splenic and hepatic lesions in the dog, J Vet Intern Med 18:330, 2004. Medline abstracts
  45. Fife WD, Samii VF, Drost WT, et al: Comparison between malignant and nonmalignant splenic masses in dogs using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 45(4):289, 2004. Medline abstracts
  46. Moore MP, Gavin PR, Kraft SL, et al: MR, CT and clinical features from four dogs with nasal tumors involving the rostral cerebrum. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 32(1):19, 1991.
  47. Koblik PD, Berry CR: Dorsal plane computed tomographic imaging of the ethmoid region to evaluate chronic nasal disease in the dog, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 31(2):92, 1990.
  48. Berry CR, Koblik PD: Evaluation of survey radiography, linear tomography, and computed tomography for detecting experimental lesions of the cribriform plate in dogs, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 31(3):146, 1990.
  49. Burk RL: Computed tomographic imaging of nasal disease in 100 dogs, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 33(3):177, 1992.
  50. Lefebvre J, Kuehn NF, Wortinger A: Computed tomography as an aid in the diagnosis of chronic nasal disease in dogs, J Small Anim Pract 46:280, 2005. Medline abstracts
  51. Saunders JH, van Bree H, Gielen I, de Rooster H: Diagnostic value of computed tomography in dogs with chronic nasal disease, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 44(4):409, 2003. Medline abstracts
  52. Schoenborn WC, Wisner ER, Kass PP, Dale M: Retrospective assessment of computed tomographic imaging in feline sinonasal disease in 62 cats, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 44(2):185, 2003. Medline abstracts
  53. Théon AP, Madewell BR, Harb MF, Dungworth DL: Megavoltage irradiation of neoplasms of nasal and paranasal cavities in 77 dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 202:1469, 1993. Medline abstracts
  54. McEntee M, Page RL, Heidner GL, et al: A retrospective study of 27 dogs with intranasal neoplasms treated with cobalt radiation, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 32(3):135, 1991.
  55. Lana SE, Dernell WS, LaRue SM, et al: Slow release cisplatin combined with radiation for the treatment of canine nasal tumors, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 38(6):474, 1997. Medline abstracts
  56. Adams WM, Miller PE, Vail DM, et al: An accelerated technique for irradiation of malignant canine nasal and paranasal sinus tumors, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 39(5):475, 1998. Medline abstracts
  57. Van Camp S, Fisher P, Thrall DE: Dynamic CT measurement of contrast medium washin kinetics in canine nasal tumors, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 41(5):403, 2000. Medline abstracts
  58. Davis GJ, Kapatkin AS, Craig LE, et al: Comparison of radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of appendicular osteosarcoma in dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 220:1171, 2002. Medline abstracts
  59. Wallack ST, Wisner ER, Werner JA, et al: Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for estimating intramedullary osteosarcoma extent in pre-operative planning for canine limb-salvage procedures, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 43(5):432, 2002. Medline abstracts
  60. Robinson D, Kossashvili Y, Sandbank J, et al: Transient bone eodema of the tibia mimicking a tumorous process, Acta Ortho Belgica 68:157, 2002. Medline abstracts
  61. McCarthy RJ, Feeney DA, Lipowitz AJ: Preoperative diagnosis of tumors of the brachial plexus by use of computed tomography in three dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 202:291, 1993. Medline abstracts
  62. Rudich SR, Feeney DA, Anderson KL, Walter PA: Computed tomography of masses of the brachial plexus and contributing nerve roots in dogs, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 45(1):46, 2004. Medline abstracts
  63. Levitski RE, Lipsitz D, Chauvet AE: Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine in 27 dogs, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 40(4):332, 1999. Medline abstracts
  64. Platt SR, Graham J, Chrisman CL, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in the diagnosis of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a dog, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 40(4):367, 1999. Medline abstracts
  65. Bendszus M, Koltenburg M: Visualization of denervated muscle by gadolinium-enhanced MRI, Neurology 57:1709, 2001. Medline abstracts
  66. Mellanby RJ, Jeffery ND, Baines EA, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of lymphoma involving the brachial plexus in a cat, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 44(5):522, 2003. Medline abstracts
  67. Rapoport S, Blair DN, McCarthy SM, et al: Brachial plexus: correlation of MR imaging with CT and pathologic findings, Radiology 167:161, 1988. Medline abstracts
  68. Hems TE, Burge PD, Wilson DJ: The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the management of peripheral nerve tumors, J Hand Surg Br 22:57, 1997. Medline abstracts

Section C: Nuclear Scintigraphy

  1. Brawner WR, Daniel GB: Nuclear imaging, Vet Clin North Am 23:379, 1993. Medline abstracts
  2. Barber DL, Roberts RE: Imaging: nuclear, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 24(2):50, 1983.
  3. Daniel GB, Brawner WR: Thyroid scintigraphy. In Daniel GB, Berry CR (eds): Textbook of veterinary nuclear medicine. Raleigh, NC, 2006, North Carolina State University.
  4. Peterson ME, Becker DV: Radionuclide thyroid imaging in 135 cats with hyperthyroidism, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 25(1):23, 1984.
  5. Wisner ER, Theon AP, Nyland TG, Hornof WJ: Ultrasonographic examination of the thyroid gland of hyperthyroid cats: comparison to 99mTcO4- scintigraphy, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 35(1):53, 1994.
  6. Henrikson TD, Armbrust LJ, Hoskinson JJ, et al: Thyroid to salivary ratios determined by technetium-99m pertechnetate imaging in thirty-two euthyroid cats, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 46:521(6), 2005. Medline abstracts
  7. Beck, KA, Hornof WJ, Feldman EC: The normal feline thyroid: technetium pertechnetate imaging and determination of thyroid to salivary gland radioactivity ratios in 10 normal cats, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 26(1):35, 1985.
  8. Page RL: Tumors of the endocrine system. In Withrow SJ, MacEwen EG (eds): Small animal clinical oncology. Philadelphia, 2001, WB Saunders.
  9. Feldman EC, Nelson RW: Canine and feline endocrinology and reproduction. Philadelphia, 1987, WB Saunders.
  10. Adams WH, Walker MA, Daniel GB, et al: Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in 7 dogs utilizing 131I, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 36(5):417, 1995.
  11. Adams WH: Thyroid radiotherapy: Iodine-131. In Daniel GB, Berry CR (eds): Textbook of veterinary nuclear medicine. Raleigh, NC, 2006, North Carolina State University.
  12. Poteet BA: Small animal skeletal scintigraphy. In Daniel GB, Berry CR (eds): Textbook of veterinary nuclear medicine. Raleigh, NC, 2006, North Carolina State University.
  13. Berg J, Lamb CR, O’Callaghan MW: Bone scintigraphy in the initial evaluation of dogs with primary bone tumors, J Am Vet Med Assoc 196:917, 1990. Medline abstracts
  14. Daniel GB, Mitchell SK, Mawby D, et al: Renal nuclear medicine: a review, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 40(6):572, 1999. Medline abstracts
  15. Twardock AR: Renal scintigraphy. In Daniel GB, Berry CR (eds): Textbook of veterinary nuclear medicine. Raleigh, NC, 2006, North Carolina State University.
  16. Daniel GB: Hepatic scintigraphy. In Daniel GB, Berry CR (eds): Textbook of veterinary nuclear medicine. Raleigh, NC, 2006, North Carolina State University. Medline abstracts
  17. Dykes NL: Conventional (planar) brain scintigraphy. In Berry CR, Daniel GB (eds): Handbook of veterinary nuclear medicine. Raleigh, NC, 1996, North Carolina State University.
  18. Dykes NL, Warnick LD, Summers BA, et al: Retrospective analysis of brain scintigraphy in 116 dogs and cats, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 35(1):59, 1994.
  19. Berry CR, Wright KN, Breitschwerdt EB, Feldman JM: Use of 123iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy for the diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma in a dog, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 34(1):52, 1993.