Henry: Cancer Management in Small Animal Practice

Chapter 3: Veterinary Cancer Etiology


Chapter 3: Veterinary Cancer Etiology

Section A: Environmental, Chemical, and Physical Carcinogens

  1. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition, 2004. Available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov.
  2. Hayes HM, Tarone RE, Cantor KP, et al: Case-control study of canine malignant lymphoma: positive association with dog owner’s use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides, J Natl Cancer Inst 83:1226, 1991. Medline abstracts
  3. Carlo GL, Cole P, Miller AM, et al: Review of a study reporting an association between 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and canine malignant lymphoma: report of an expert panel, Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 10:245, 1992. Medline abstracts
  4. Hayes HM, Tarone RE, Cantor KP: On the association between canine malignant lymphoma and opportunity for exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, Environ Res 70:119, 1995. Medline abstracts
  5. Kaneene JB, Miller R: Re-analysis of 2,4-D use and the occurrence of canine malignant lymphoma, Vet Human Toxicol 41:164, 1999. Medline abstracts
  6. Reynolds PM, Reif JS, Ramsdell HS: Canine exposure to herbicide-treated lawns and urinary excretion of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 3:233, 1994. Medline abstracts
  7. Gavazza A, Presciuttini S, Barale R, et al: Association between canine malignant lymphoma, living in industrial areas, and use of chemicals by dog owners, J Vet Intern Med 15:190, 2001. Medline abstracts
  8. Glickman LT, Schofer FS, McKee LJ, et al: Epidemiologic study of insecticide exposures, obesity, and risk of bladder cancer in household dogs, J Toxicol Environ Health 28:407, 1989. Medline abstracts
  9. Bertone ER, Snyder LA, Moore AS: Environmental and lifestyle risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma in domestic cats, J Vet Intern Med  17:557, 2003. Medline abstracts
  10. Raghavan M, Knapp DW, Dawson MH, et al: Topical flea and tick pesticides and the risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Scottish Terriers, J Am Vet Med Assoc 225:389, 2004. Medline abstracts
  11. Glickman LT, Raghavan M, Knapp DW, et al: Herbicide exposure and the risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Scottish Terriers, J Am Vet Med Assoc 224:1290, 2004. Medline abstracts
  12. Leonard CT, Sachs DP: Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer incidence, Curr Opin Pulm Med 5:189, 1999. Medline abstracts
  13. Hackshaw AK, Law MR, Wald NJ: The accumulated evidence on lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke, Br Med J 315:980, 1997. Medline abstracts
  14. Reif JS, Dunn K, Ogilvie GK, et al: Passive smoking and canine lung cancer risk, Am J Epidemiol 135:234, 1992. Medline abstracts
  15. Herrinton LJ, Friedman GD: Cigarette smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma subtypes, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7:25, 1998. Medline abstracts
  16. Linet MS, McLaughlin JK, Hsing AW, et al: Is cigarette smoking a risk factor for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma or multiple myeloma? Results from the Lutheran Brotherhood Cohort Study, Leuk Res 16:621, 1992. Medline abstracts
  17. Bertone ER, Snyder LA, Moore AS: Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of malignant lymphoma in pet cats, Am J Epidemiol 156:268, 2002. Medline abstracts
  18. Freedman DS, Tolbert PE, Coates R: Relation of cigarette smoking to non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma among middle-aged men, Am J Epidemiol 148:833, 1998. Medline abstracts
  19. Snyder LA, Bertone ER, Jakowski RM, et al: p53 expression and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in feline oral squamous cell carcinoma, Vet Pathol 41:209, 2004. Medline abstracts
  20. Baker GL, Kahl LE, Zee BC, et al: Malignancy following treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with cyclophosphamide: long-term case-control follow-up study, Am J Med 83:1, 1987. Medline abstracts
  21. Weller RE, Wolf AM, Oyejide A: Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with cyclophosphamide administration, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 15:733, 1979.
  22. Macy DW, Withrow SJ, Hoopes J: Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with cyclophosphamide administration, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 19:965, 1983.
  23. Reif JS, Bruns C, Lower KS: Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in pet dogs, Am J Epidemiol 147:488, 1998. Medline abstracts
  24. Reif JS, Cohen D: The environmental distribution of canine respiratory tract neoplasms, Arch Environ Health 22:136, 1971. Medline abstracts
  25. Hayes HM, Hoover R, Tarone RE: Bladder cancer in pet dogs: a sentinel for environmental cancer? Am J Epidemiol 114:229, 1981. Medline abstracts
  26. van der Schalie WH, Gardner HS Jr, Bantle JA, et al: Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals, Environ Health Perspect 107:309, 1999.
  27. Bukowski JA, Wartenberg D: An alternative approach for investigating the carcinogenicity of indoor air pollution: pets as sentinels of environmental cancer risk, Environ Health Perspect 105:1312, 1997. Medline abstracts
  28. Fu W, Cockerell CJ: The actinic (solar) keratosis: a 21st-century perspective, Arch Dermatol 139:66, 2003. Medline abstracts
  29. Kahn SG, Bicker DR, Mukhtar H, et al: Ras p21 farnesylation in ultraviolet B radiation-induced tumors in the skin of SKH-1 hairless mice, J Invest Dermatol 102;754, 1994. Medline abstracts
  30. Lowe NJ, Weingarten D, Wortzman M: Sunscreens and phototesting, Clin Derm 6:40, 1988. Medline abstracts
  31. Hargis AM: A review of solar-induced lesions in domestic animals, Comp Cont Edu 3:287, 1981.
  32. Aubin F, Mousson C: Ultraviolet light-induced regulatory (suppressor) T cells: an approach for promoting induction of operational allograft tolerance? Transplantation 77:S29, 2004. Medline abstracts
  33. Brash DE, Zieglar A, Jonason AS, et al: Sunlight and sunburn in human skin cancer: apoptosis and tumor promotion, J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 1:136, 1996. Medline abstracts
  34. Bernays ME, Flemming D, Peiffer RL Jr: Primary corneal papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma associated with pigmentary keratitis in four dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 214:215, 1999. Medline abstracts
  35. Hakanson N, Shively JN, Reed RE: Intraocular spindle cell sarcoma following ocular trauma in a cat: case report and literature review, J Am Anim Hosp 26:63, 1990.
  36. Vaccine-Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force: The current understanding and management of vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats, J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:1821, 2005. Medline abstracts
  37. Vascellari M, Melchiotti E, Bozza MA, Mutinelli F: Fibrosarcomas at presumed sites of injection in dogs: characteristics and comparisons with nonvaccination site fibrosarcomas and feline post-vaccinal fibrosarcomas, J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 50:286, 2003. Medline abstracts
  38. Munday JS, Stedman NL, Richey LJ: Histology and immunohistochemistry of seven ferret vaccination-site fibrosarcomas, Vet Pathol 40:288, 2003. Medline abstracts
  39. Wertheimer N, Leeper E: Electrical wiring configurations and childhood cancer, Am J Epidemiol 109:273, 1979. Medline abstracts
  40. Reif JS, Lower KS, Ogilvie GK: Residential exposure to magnetic fields and risk of canine lymphoma, Am J Epidemiol 141:352, 1995. Medline abstracts
  41. National Research Council, Committee on the Possible Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Biologic Systems: Possible health effects of exposure to residential electric and magnetic fields. Washington, DC, 1997, National Academies Press.
  42. Thrall DE: Orthovoltage radiotherapy of acanthomatous epulides in 39 dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 184:826, 1984. Medline abstracts
  43. McEntee MC, Page RL, Theon A, et al: Malignant tumor formation in dogs previously irradiated for acanthomatous epulis, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 45:357, 2004. Medline abstracts
  44. Kuttesch JF, Wexler LH, Marcus RB, et al: Second malignancies after Ewing’s sarcoma: radiation dose-dependency of secondary sarcomas, J Clin Oncol 14:2818, 1996. Medline abstracts
  45. Hall EJ, Wuu CS: Radiation-induced second cancers: the impact of 3D-CRT and IMRT, Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 56:83, 2003. Medline abstracts
  46. White RAS, Jefferies AR, Gorman NT, et al: Sarcoma development following irradiation of acanthomatous epulis in two dogs, Vet Record 118:668, 1986. Medline abstracts
  47. McChesney SL, Withrow SJ, Gillette EL, et al: Radiotherapy in soft tissue sarcomas in dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 194:60, 1989. Medline abstracts
  48. Gillette SM, Gillette EL, Powers BE, et al: Radiation-induced osteosarcoma in dogs after external beam or intraoperative radiation therapy, Cancer Res 50:54, 1990. Medline abstracts
  49. Theon AP, Rodriguez C, Griffey S, Madewell BR: Analysis of prognostic factors and patterns of failure in dogs with periodontal tumors treated with megavoltage irradiation, J Am Vet Med Assoc 210:785, 1997. Medline abstracts
  50. Loeffler JS, Niemierko A, Chapman P: Second tumors after radiosurgery: tip of the iceberg or a bump in the road? Neurosurgery 52:1436, 2003. Medline abstracts
  51. Lewis CG, Sunderman FW Jr: Metal carcinogenesis in total joint arthroplasty: animal models, Clin Orthop 329S:S264, 1996. Medline abstracts
  52. Li XQ, Hom DL, Black J, et al: Relationship between metallic implants and cancer: a case control study in a canine population, Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 6:70, 1993.
  53. Rowland PH, Moise NS, Severson D: Myxoma at the site of a subcutaneous pacemaker in a dog, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 27:649, 1991.
  54. Pardo AD, Adams WH, McCracken D, et al: Primary jejunal osteosarcoma associated with a surgical sponge, J Am Vet Med Assoc 196:935, 1990. Medline abstracts
  55. Vascellari M, Melchiotti E, Mutinelli F: Fibrosarcoma with typical features of postinjection sarcoma at site of microchip implant in a dog: histologic and immunohistochemical study, Vet Pathol 43:545, 2006. Medline abstracts
  56. Vascellari M, Mutinelli F, Cossettini R, et al: Liposarcoma at the site of an implanted microchip in a dog, Vet J 168:188, 2004. Medline abstracts
  57. Orenstein MR, Schenker MB: Environmental asbestos exposure and mesothelioma, Curr Opin Pulm Med 6:371, 2000. Medline abstracts
  58. Glickman LT, Domanski LM, Maguire TG, et al: Mesothelioma in pet dogs associated with exposure of their owners to asbestos, Environ Res 32:305, 1983. Medline abstracts
  59. Harbison ML, Godleski JJ: Malignant mesothelioma in urban dogs, Vet Pathol 20:531, 1983. Medline abstracts
  60. Machida N, Tanaka R, Takemura N, et al: Development of pericardial mesothelioma in golden retrievers with a long-term history of idiopathic haemorrhagic pericardial effusion, J Comp Path 131:166, 2004. Medline abstracts

Section B: Viral Carcinogenesis

  1. Benchimol S, Minden MD: Viruses, oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes. In Tannock IF, Hill RP (eds): The basic science of oncology, ed 3. New York, 1998, McGraw-Hill.
  2. Richardson CD: Viruses and cancer. In Tannock IF, Hill RP (eds): The basic science of oncology, ed 4. New York, 2005, McGraw-Hill.
  3. Pfister HH: Biology and biochemistry of papillomaviruses, Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 99:111, 1984. Medline abstracts
  4. Sundberg JP, Reszler AA, Williams ES, et al: An oral papillomavirus that infected one coyote and three dogs, Vet Pathol 28:87, 1991. Medline abstracts
  5. Tokita H, Konishi S: Studies on canine oral papillomatosis, II: Oncogenicity of canine oral papilloma virus to various tissues of dog with special reference to eye tumor, Jpn J Vet Sci 37:109, 1975. Medline abstracts
  6. Hare CL, Howard EB: Canine conjunctiva-corneal papillomatosis, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 13:688, 1977.
  7. Bonney CH, Koch SA, Conter AW, et al: Case report: A conjunctivocorneal papilloma with evidence of a viral etiology, J Small Anim Pract 21:183, 1980. Medline abstracts
  8. Bregman CL, Hirth RS, Sundberg JP, et al: Cutaneous neoplasms in dogs associated with canine oral papillomavirus, Vet Pathol 24:477, 1987. Medline abstracts
  9. Davis PE, Huxtable CRR, Sabcine M: Dermal papillomas in the racing greyhound, Aust J Dermatol 17:13, 1976. Medline abstracts
  10. Theilen GH, Madewell BR: Papillomatosis and fibromatosis. In Theilen GH, Madewell BR (eds): Veterinary cancer medicine. Philadelphia, 1987, Lea and Febiger.
  11. Calvert CA: Canine viral papillomatosis. In Greene CE (ed): Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. Philadelphia, 1991, WB Saunders.
  12. Watrach AM, Small E, Case MT: Canine papilloma: Progression of oral papilloma to carcinoma, J Natl Cancer Inst 45:915, 1970. Medline abstracts
  13. Belkin PV: Ocular lesions in canine oral papillomatosis, Vet Med Small Anim Clin 74:1520, 1979. Medline abstracts
  14. Bonney CH, Koch SA, Dice PF, et al: Papillomatosis of conjunctiva and adnexa in dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 176:48, 1980. Medline abstracts
  15. Bomholt A: Interferon therapy for laryngeal papillomatosis in adults, Arch Otolaryngol 109:550, 1983. Medline abstracts
  16. Sundberg JP, Smith EK, Herron AJ, et al: Cutaneous verrucosis in a Chinese Shar Pei dog, Vet Pathol 31:183–187, 1994. Medline abstracts
  17. Pederson NC: Feline immunodeficiency virus. In Schellekens LT, Horzinek MC (eds): Animal models in AIDS. Amsterdam, 1990, Elsevier.
  18. Hardy WD Jr: The feline sarcoma viruses, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 17:981, 1981.
  19. Schafer W, Bolognesi DP: Mammalian type C oncornaviruses: relationships between viral structure and cell surface antigens and their possible significance in immunological defense mechanisms, Contemp Top Immunobiol 6:127, 1977. Medline abstracts
  20. Bolognesi DP, Montelaro RC, Frank H, et al: Assembly of type C oncornaviruses: a model, Science 199:183, 1978. Medline abstracts
  21. Hardy WD Jr: Immunology of oncornaviruses, Vet Clin North Am 4:133, 1974. Medline abstracts
  22. Hardy WD Jr, Hirshaut Y, Hess P: Detection of the feline leukemia virus and other mammalian oncornaviruses by immunofluorescence. In Dutcher RM, Chieco-Bianchi L (eds): Unifying concepts of leukemia. Basel, 1973, S Karger.
  23. Hartmann K: Feline leukemia virus infection. In Greene CE (ed): Infectious diseases of the dog and cat, ed 3. St Louis, 2006, Saunders.
  24. Rojko JL, Hardy WD Jr: Feline leukemia virus and other retroviruses. In Sherding RG (ed): The cat: diseases and clinical management, ed 2. New York, 1994, Churchill Livingstone.
  25. Gelain ME, Antoniazzi E, Bertazzolo W, et al: Chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat: cytochemical and immunophenotypical features, Vet Clin Pathol 35(4):454, 2006. Medline abstracts
  26. Spodnick GJ, Berg J, Moore FM, et al: Spinal lymphoma in cats: 21 cases (1976-1989), J Am Vet Med Assoc 200:373, 1992. Medline abstracts
  27. Lane SB, Kornegay JN, Duncan JR, et al: Feline spinal lymphosarcoma: a retrospective evaluation of 23 cats, J Vet Intern Med 8(2):99, 1994. Medline abstracts
  28. Richards J: 2001 Report of the American Association of Feline Practitioners and the Academy of Feline Medicine Advisory Panel on feline retrovirus testing and management, J Feline Med Surg 5(1):3, 2003. Medline abstracts
  29. McCaw D: Caring for the retrovirus infected cat, Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 10(4):216, 1995. Medline abstracts
  30. Cotter SM: Feline leukemia virus: pathophysiology, prevention and treatment, Cancer Invest 10(2):173, 1992. Medline abstracts
  31. Cotter SM: Management of healthy feline leukemia virus-positive cats, J Am Vet Med Assoc 199(10):1470, 1991. Medline abstracts
  32. August JR: Husbandry practices for cats infected with feline leukemia virus or feline immunodeficiency virus, J Am Vet Med Assoc 199(10):1474, 1991. Medline abstracts
  33. Hardy WD Jr, McClelland AJ, Zuckerman EE, et al: Prevention of the contagious spread of feline leukaemia virus and the development of leukaemia in pet cats, Nature 263(5575):326, 1976. Medline abstracts
  34. Macy DW: Cancer-causing viruses. In Withrow SJ, Vail DM (eds): Small animal clinical oncology, ed 4. St Louis, 2007, Elsevier.
  35. Richards JR, Elston, Ford RB, et al: The 2006 American Association of Feline Practitioners Feline Vaccine Advisory Panel report, J Am Vet Med Assoc 229(9):1405, 2006. Medline abstracts
  36. Kociba GJ, Lange RD, Dunn CD, et al: Serum erythropoietin changes in cats with feline leukemia virus-induced erythroid aplasia, Vet Pathol 20:548, 1983. Medline abstracts
  37. Essex M, Klein G, Snyder SP, et al: Feline sarcoma virus (FSV)-induced tumors: correlation between humoral antibody and tumor regression, Nature 233:195, 1971. Medline abstracts
  38. Patnaik AK, Liu SK, Hurvitz AI, et al: Nonhematopoietic neoplasms in cats, J Natl Cancer Inst 54(4):855, 1975. Medline abstracts
  39. Sellon RK, Hartmann K: Feline immunodeficiency virus infection. In Greene CE (ed): Infectious diseases of the dog and cat, ed 3. St Louis, 2006, Saunders.
  40. Shelton GH, Grant CK, Cotter SM, et al: Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections and their relationships to lymphoid malignancies in cats: a retrospective study (1968-1988), J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 3(6):623, 1990. Medline abstracts
  41. Hutson CA, Rideout BA, Pedersen NC: Neoplasia associated with feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats of southern California, J Am Vet Med Assoc 199(10):1357, 1991. Medline abstracts
  42. Pederson NC, Barlough JE: Clinical overview of feline immunodeficiency virus, J Am Vet Med Assoc 199(10):1298, 1991. Medline abstracts
  43. Ishida T, Wahiza T, Toriyabe K, et al: Feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats of Japan, J Am Vet Med Assoc 194(2):221, 1989. Medline abstracts

Section C: Hormonal Impact on Carcinogenesis

  1. Dorn CA, Taylor DON, Schneider R: Survey of animal neoplasms in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California II. Cancer morbidity in dogs and cats from Alameda County, J Nat Cancer Inst 40:307, 1968. Medline abstracts
  2. Moulton JE. Tumors of the mammary gland. In Moulton JE (ed): Tumours in domestic animals, ed 3. Berkeley, 1990, University of California Press, pp 518-552.
  3. Schneider R, Dorn CR, Taylor DON: Factors influencing canine mammary tumor development and postsurgical survival, J Nat Cancer Inst 43:1249, 1969. Medline abstracts
  4. Brodey RS, Goldschmidt MH, Roszel JR: Canine mammary neoplasms, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 19:61, 1983.
  5. Perez Alenza MD, Pena L, del Castillo N, et al: Factors influencing the incidence and prognosis of canine mammary tumours, J Small Anim Pract 41:287, 2000. Medline abstracts
  6. MacEwen EG, Patnaik AK, Harvey HJ, et al: Estrogen receptors in canine mammary tumors, Cancer Res 42:2255, 1982. Medline abstracts
  7. Mialot JP, Andre F, Martin PM, et al: Etude de receptors des hormones steroids dans les tumeurs mammaries de la chienne II: correlations avec quelques caracteristiques cliniques, Recueil Medicine Veterinaire 158:513, 1982.
  8. Monson KR, Malbica JO, Hubben K: Determination of estrogen receptors in canine mammary tumors, Am J Vet Res 38:1937, 1987.
  9. Donnay I, Rauis J, Devleeschower N, et al: Comparison of estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in normal and mammary tissues from dogs, Am J Vet Res 56:1188, 1995. Medline abstracts
  10. Elling H, Ungemach FR: Simultaneous occurrence for receptors of estradiol, progesterone and dihydrotestosterone in canine mammary tumors, J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 105:231, 1983. Medline abstracts
  11. Sartin EA, Barnes S, Kwapien RP, Wolfe LG: Estrogen and progesterone receptor status of mammary carcinomas and correlation with clinical outcome in dogs, Am J Vet Res 53:2196, 1992. Medline abstracts
  12. Rutteman GR, Misdorp W, Blankenstein MA, van den Brom WE: Oestrogen (ER) and progestin receptors (PR) in mammary tissue of the female dog: different receptor profile in non-malignant and malignant states, Br J Cancer 58:594, 1988. Medline abstracts
  13. Rutteman GR: Hormones and mammary tumour disease in the female dog: an update, In Vivo 4:33, 1990. Medline abstracts
  14. Stovring M, Moe L, Glattre E: A population-based case-control study of canine mammary tumours and clinical use of medroxyprogesterone acetate, Acta Pathologica Microbiologica Immunologica Scandinavica 105:590, 1997. Medline abstracts
  15. Zanninovic P, Simcic V: Epidemiology of mammary tumors in dogs, Eur J Comp Anim Pract IV:67, 1994.
  16. Lantinga-van Leeuwen IS, van Garderen E, Rutteman GR, et al: Cloning and cellular localization of the canine progesterone receptor: co-localization with growth hormone in the mammary gland, J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol 75:219, 2000. Medline abstracts
  17. Mol JA, Lantinga-van Leeuwen I, van Garderen E, et al: Progestin-induced mammary growth hormone (GH) production, Adv Exp Med Biol 480:71, 2000. Medline abstracts
  18. Rijnberk A, Kooistra HS, Mol JA: Endocrine diseases in dogs and cats: similarities and differences with endocrine diseases in humans, Growth Horm IGF Re 13 Suppl A:S158, 2003. Medline abstracts
  19. Hayes HM, Milne KL, Mandell CP: Epidemiological features of feline mammary carcinoma, Vet Rec 108:476, 1981. Medline abstracts
  20. Misdorp W, Romijin A, Hart AAM: Feline mammary tumors: a case-control study of hormonal factors, Anticancer Res 11:1793, 1991. Medline abstracts
  21. Overley B, Shofer FS, Goldschmidt MH, et al: Association between ovariohysterectomy and feline mammary carcinoma, J Vet Intern Med 19:560, 2005. Medline abstracts
  22. National Cancer Institute: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program Public Use Data (1973-2000), Bethesda, April 2003, National Cancer Institute.
  23. Villamil JA, Henry CJ, Tyler JW, et al: Hormonal and gender impact on the epidemiology of canine lymphoma, Journal of Cancer Epidemiology (in press).
  24. Dow SW, Olson PN, Rosychuk RAW, et al: Perianal adenomas and hypertestosteronemia in a spayed bitch with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, J Am Vet Med Assoc 192:1439, 1988. Medline abstracts
  25. Wilson GP, Hayes HM: Castration for treatment of perianal gland neoplasms in the dog, J Am Vet Med Assoc 174:1301, 1979. Medline abstracts
  26. Waters DJ, Sakr WA, Hayden DW, et al: Workgroup 4: Spontaneous prostate carcinoma in dogs and nonhuman primates, Prostate 36:64, 1998. Medline abstracts
  27. Madewell BR, Gandour-Edwards R, White RWD, et al: Canine prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: Is the comparative model relevant? Prostate 58:314, 2004. Medline abstracts
  28. Teske E, Naan EC, von Dijk EM, et al: Canine prostate carcinoma: epidemiological evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs, Mol Cell Endocrinol 197:251, 2002. Medline abstracts
  29. Sorenmo KU, Goldschmidt M, Shofer F, et al: Immunohistochemical characteristics of canine prostatic carcinoma and correlation with castration status and castration time, Vet Comp Oncol 1:48, 2003. Medline abstracts
  30. Bryan JN, Henry CJ, Hahn AW, Caldwell CW: A population study of neutering status as a risk factor for canine prostate cancer, Prostate 67:1174, 2007. Medline abstracts